50-year, 100-year, 150-year, etc. anniversaries appear in bold red.
See also a chemical calendar at Linz, Austria (in German) or Today in Science History by Ian Ellis.
- Rachel Fuller Brown born 1898: biochemist, co-discoverer of the fungicide nystatin (US patent 2,797,183), the first antibiotic used effectively to treat human fungal infections.
- Campbell Soup Company incorporated, 1922.
- William G. Kaelin Jr born 1957: Nobel Prize (medicine), 2019, for oxygen sensing in cells
- Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley born 1887: discovered that X-ray frequency is related to atomic number of elements. Moseley was killed in World War I.
- Johannes Diderik van der Waals born 1837: equation of state for non-ideal gases (van der Waals equation), intermolecular interactions (van der Waals forces), electrolytic dissociation, capilarity; Nobel Prize (Physics), 1910.
- Beckman Instruments (now Beckman Coulter) incorporated, as National Inking Appliance, 1934.
- Elizabeth Helen Blackburn born 1948: telomerase; Nobel Prize (medicine), 2009.
- Charles Hatchett announced discovery of columbium (niobium, Nb, element 41) before Royal Society, 1801.
- John Alexander Reina Newlands born 1837: classification of elements ("law of octaves")
- Charles Adolphe Wurtz born 1817: synthesis of hydrocarbons (Wurtz reaction), methyl & ethyl amines, phosphorous oxychloride, and glycol. Read his account of the Karlsruhe Congress.
- Karl Ziegler born 1898: polymerization through organometallic catalysis; plastics; Nobel Prize, 1963.
Principal Sources: Milestones in Chemistry Calendar, Copyright © 1996, remains the principal source of information; however, I have checked (and in some cases corrected) its birth dates. Chemical and Engineering News "Top 75" (75th anniversary issue, 1/12/98) and Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists edited by John Daintith et al. (Institute of Physics, 2nd ed, 1994) are other important sources. Women in Chemistry and Physics : a Biobibliographic Sourcebook, edited by Louise S. Grinstein, Rose K. Rose, and Miriam H. Rafailovich and Notable Women in the Physical Sciences edited by Benjamin F. and Barbara S. Shearer have helped me to add several women to the calendar. The Illustrated Almanac of Science, Technology, and Invention by Raymond L. Francis is the source of several entries. Thanks to all interested readers who have suggested events for inclusion; Lucio Gelmini has been particularly helpful in this regard.
Dates are given according to the Gregorian calendar to the extent I could find them. (Note: this applies particularly to 19th-century Russians.)
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