http://scarc.library.oregonstate.edu July in Chemistry July in Chemistry Links in these month-by-month files are revised only yearly, when the events are posted on This Week in the History of Chemistry. Click here to view principal sources. July 1 Gerald Maurice Edelman born 1929: structure of antibodies; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1972. Gladys Anderson Emerson born 1903: isolation and function of vitamin E (tocopherol); vitamin B deficiencies. Alfred Goodman Gilman born 1941: G-proteins and cellular signal transduction; Nobel prize (medicine), 1994. Franz Joseph Müller von Reichenstein born 1740: discovered tellurium (Te, element 52). July 2 Richard Axel born 1946: research on olfaction, one of the "chemical senses;" Nobel Prize (Medicine), 2004. Elkan Rodgers Blout born 1919: protein conformation. William Henry Bragg born 1862: X-ray crystallography (Bragg's law); Nobel Prize (Physics), 1915 with son William Lawrence. Read reminiscences by the younger Bragg and a biography of the elder from Fifty Years of X-Ray Diffraction, edited by P. P. Ewald. Fritz Haber demonstrated nitrogen fixation process (Haber process for synthetic ammonia) to Badische Aniline und Soda-Fabrik (BASF), 1909. Albert Ladenburg born 1842: synthesis of pyridine, piperidine, and other compounds Jean'ne Marie Shreeve born 1933: synthetic fluorine chemistry, particularly fluorinated compounds of nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus; Garvan Medal, 1972. Fritz Ullmann born 1872: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Paul Weisz born 1919: catalytic activity of artificial and natural zeolites. July 3 Antoine-Jerome Balard announced discovery of bromine (Br, element 35) to Académie des Sciences, Paris, 1826. Samuel Proctor Massie, Jr. born 1919: silicon chemistry; science education (encouraging disadvantaged students into science) Sergei Semenovich Nametkin born 1876: terpene chemistry; rearrangement of camphenes. July 4 Ernst Otto Beckmann born 1853: Beckmann rearrangement in organic chemistry; Beckmann thermometer . NASA Pathfinder landed on Mars, 1997. Unmanned mission included physical and chemical characterization of Martian surface. July 5 American Cyanamid (now part of BASF Agricultural Products) organized, 1907. Herbert Spencer Gasser born 1888: electrophysiology of nerves; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1944. John Howard Northrop born 1891: purification of enzymes and proteins; fermentation process for acetone manufacture; Nobel Prize, 1946. William Macquorn Rankine born 1820: thermodynamics of steam engines; absolute temperature scale (Rankine scale) Robert Williams of Merck, Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories announced synthesis of vitamin B1, 1936. July 6 William Hobson Mills born 1873: tetrahedral ammonium ions; materials for photography in red light. Axel Hugo Theorell born 1903: structure of enzymes; crystallized myoglobin; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1955. July 7 Robert Goddard obtained a patent (US patent 1,102,653) for a liquid fuel rocket, 1914. Camillo Golgi born 1843: neuroscience, including the so-called "black reaction" for staining nerve cells; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1906. (Thanks to Ray Williams at ACS for pointing me toward this entry.) July 8 Jason Cardelli reported in Science interstellar abundances of the heaviest elements yet detected in interstellar gas (including thallium and lead), 1994. July 9 Ford Motor Company incorporated, 1919. July 10 Kurt Alder born 1902: Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction, Nobel Prize, 1950 with Otto Diels. July 11 Samuel Abraham Goudsmit born 1902: electron spin. William Robert Grove born 1811: electrochemistry; fuel cells; conservation of energy (On The Correlation of Physical Forces) Theodore Harold Maiman born 1927: invented ruby laser (first operable optical laser, US patent 3,353,115; see original paper) July 12 Claude Bernard born 1813: discovered glycogen; research on digestion.