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[Narrative Psychology]


 Topics in Narrative Psychology

 Autobiography, Memoir, & Historical Biography

"Although everyone cannot be a Gargantua-Napoleon-Bismarck and walk off with the great bells of Notre Dame, everyone must bear his own universe, and most persons are moderately interested in learning how their neighbors have managed to carry theirs"

--Henry Adams. The Education of Henry Adams (1918)


    Background  ||  Internet  ||  Bibliographical  ||  Theorists

Background Issues

See below

Autobiography: Processes of Conversion


Theorists*Key Figures

Internet Resouces

This is a bibliography prepared for an interdisciplinary 400-level course on Human Experience. The focus here are autobiographies, particularly of women and men of color, and critical commentaries on them. The first author is Chair of the Dept. of Integrative Studies at ASU West.


Bibliographical Resources

Autobiography: Theory and Practice

Atlas, J. (1996, May 12). The age of the literary memoir is now. New York Times Magazine, 25-27.

Analysis of the current trend to the publication of memoirs. Introduction to a special issue of the magazine entitled "True Confessions" which includes excerpts from memoirs and reflections of 12 current authors (Lisa Michaels, Luc Sante, Veronica Chambers, Art Spiegelman, Mary Gordon, Leonard Michaels, Phyllis Rose, Chang-Rae Lee, Susan Cheever, Joyce Carol Oates, David Beers, and Mary Kerr).

+Bjorklund, D. (1998). Interpreting the self: Two hundred years of American autobiography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [CT25 .B58 1998]

Traces conceptions of the self as revealed in an analysis of more than 100 autobiographies published over the past two hundred years in the US.

Bruss, E. (1976). Autobiographical acts: The changing situation of a literary genre. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

+Cooley, T. (1976). Educated lives: The rise of modern autobiography in America. Columbus, OH: Ohio State Univesity Press. [PS169.A95 C6]

The place of autobiography within the history of American literature.

+Eakin, P. J. (1985). Fictions in autobiography: Studies in the art of self invention. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. [PS366.A88 E26 1985]

Self in 20th century French and American prose literature and its relation to autobiography.

Eakin, P. J. (1992). Touching the World: Reference in Autobiography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Eakin, P. J. (1999). How Our Lives Become Stories: Making Selves. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

+Folkenflik, R. (Ed.). (1993). The culture of autobiography: Constructions of self-representations. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. [CT25.C84 1993]

Autobiography is now beginning to receive significant critical attention. The ten essays in this collection address from different vantage points the larger problems posed by the form and the question of its institutional and cultural marginality. Delving into the history, theory, and practice of autobiography, the essays deal with such current concerns as women's writings, minority autobiography, and non-Western writing. (from book blurb)

+Freeman, M. (1993). Rewriting the self: History, memory, narrative. New York: Routledge. [BF378.A87F74 1992]

An exploration of the process by which people re-interpret the meaning and significance of past experience. Drawing on the lives of such autobiographers as St. Augustine, Helen Keller, and Philip Roth as well as the insights of psychology, philosophy, and literary theory, the book sheds light on the intricacies & dilemmas of self-interpretation. [from book cover blurb] Brilliant book. Won the Alpha Sigma Nu National Book Award in Social Science.

Gunn, J. V. (1982). Autobiography: Toward a poetics of experience. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Harre, R. (1997). Pathological autobiographies. Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology, 4, 99-109.

Henderson, H. (1989). The Victorian self: Autobiography and biblical narrative. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. [PR788.A9 H4 1989]

J.H. Newman, John Ruskin, E. Grosse.

+Jay, P. (1984). Being in the text: self-representation from Wordsworth to Roland Barthes. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. [PN761.J39 1984]

Jolly, M. (Ed.). (2001/forthcoming). Encyclopedia of life writing: Autobiographical and biographical forms. (2 vols). London, UK/Chicago, IL: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers.

Kerr, M. (1996, May 12). Dysfunctional nation. New York Times Magazine, 70.

In this single-page essay, Kerr, author of "The Liar's Club," reflects upon how broadly her audiences across the US have resonated with the family problems she detailed in her best-selling memoir.

Leibowitz, H. (1989). Fabricating lives: Explorations in American autobiography. New York: Knopf.

+Lionnet, F. (1989). Autobiographical voices: Race, gender, self-portraiture. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. [PN471.L56 1991]

+Olney, J. (1972). Metaphors of self: The meaning of autobiography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. [CT25 .A95]

+Olney, J. (1980). (Ed.). Autobiography: Essays theoretical and critical. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. [CT25.O44]

Olney, J. (1999). Memory and narrative: The weave of life-writing. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Historical survey of autobiographical writing across Western culture from the Early Midde Ages (Augustine) through Rousseau to the present. Challenging.

Parke, C. N. (1996). Biography: Writing lives. New York: Twayne Pub.

Rose, P. (Ed.) (1993). Introduction. The Norton book of women's lives (pp. 11-37). New York: W. W. Norton. [CT3225.R67 1993]

Phyllis Rose discusses the role of autobiographical writing in the development of women's gender identity via exposure to multiple role models as well as the difficulties faced and criteria used in selecting which writings would be included in this anthology.

+Saldivar, R. (1990). Chicano narrative: The dialectics of difference. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. [PS153.M4S24 1990]

Mexican-American authors examined.

Sayre, R. F. (1988). The Examined Self reexamined: A reintroduction, 1987. The examined self: Benjamin Franklin, Henry Adams, Henry James (pp. ix-xxiv). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. (Originally published in 1964) [CT25.S2]

Sayre's important text has been republished with a new introduction in which the author synthesizes recent historical, literary, and psychological work on the theory of autobiographical writing. This short essay provides an excellent summary of the "topical-cultural" and "structural-theoretical" approaches to autobiography, particularly from an American academic persepctive during the late-1960s through the mid-1980s..

+Sasson, D. (1983). The Shaker spiritual narrative. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press. [BX9766 .S27 1983]

+Smith, S. & Watson, J. (Eds.). (1996). Getting a life: Everyday uses of autobiography. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. [CT25.G48 1996]

Smith, V. (1987). Self-discovery and authority in Afro-American narrative. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. [PS153.N5 S63 1987]

+Stepto, R. B. (1979). From behind the veil: A study of Afro-American narrative. Urbana, IL: Univesity of Illinois Press. [PS366.A35 S7]

Stone, A. E. (1982). Autobiographical occasions and original acts: Versions of American identity from Henry Adams to Nate Shaw. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Winslow, D. J. (1995). Life-writing: A glossary of terms in biography, autobiography, and related forms (2nd ed.). Hawaii: Biographical Research Center/The University Press of Hawaii.

Donald Winslow's glossary demonstrates the extraordinary breadth of what is termed "life-writing" and provides a wealth of historical and recent works and references associated with the many forms of writing detailed in this monograph. First edition was published in 1980.

+Wood, J. (Ed.). (1992). Malcolm X: In our own image. New York: St. Martin's Press. BP223.Z8 L5763 1992]

A range of essays by significant African-American writers reflecting upon Malcolm. Includes John Edgar Wideman's study of the art of autobiography in Malcolm's own book.


Autobiography: Processes of Conversion

Though a constant issue in psychology has been the question of why people change, the focus of its research has most often detailed somewhat narrow motivating forces in the psychobiological makeup or learning experiences of individuals. Less attention has been paid to the wider narrative factors experienced by individuals who undergo what appear to be profound "conversions" of lifestyle and belief. Often religious in nature, the phenomenon of "conversion" and its linkage to narrative psychology promise new insights into the reasons why people change.

Baird, M. (1992). Self transcendence and narrative practice: A preliminary study of the antecedents of conversion experiences. Studies in Formative Spirituality, 13, 333-347.

+Barbour, J. D. (1994). Versions of deconversion: Autobiography and the loss of faith. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

+Bochen, C. M. (1988). The journey to Rome: Conversion literature by nineteenth-century American Catholics. New York: Garland Pub. [BX4668.15 .B63 1988]

Originally presented as author's doctoral thesis at CUA. Looks at Catholic converts of the 19th century.

+Brereton, V. L. (1991). From sin to salvation: Stories of women's conversions, 1800 to the present. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. (BR110.B44 1991)

+Hasselbach, I. with Reiss, T. (1996, January 8). Personal history: How Nazis are made. The New Yorker, 36-56. Ingo Hasselbach, founder of a Neo-Nazi party in East Germay, details both how he became a Nazi and how he abandoned that identity. Excerpted from Hasselbach, I. with Reiss, T. (1996). Führer-ex: Memoirs of a former neo-Nazi. New York: Random House.

Peters, G. (1993). The mutilating God: Authorship and authority in the narrative of conversion. Amherst, MA: University of Masschusetts. [PN212.P48 1993]

Narration, autobiography and the process of conversion in literature.

+Stromberg, P. G. (1993). Language and self-transformation: A study of the Christian conversion narrative. New York: Cambridge University Press. [BR110 .S76 1993]

"This is a study of how self-transformation may occur through the practice of reframing one's personal experience in terms of a canonical language: that is, a system of symbols that purports to explain something about human beings and the universe they live in. The Christian conversion narrative is used as the primary example here, but the approach used in this book also illuminates other practices, such as psychotherapy, in which people deal with emotional conflict through language." (from publisher's blurb). This text is one of the series of Publications of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 5 .

Wheelis, A. (1973). How people change. New York: Perennial Library/Harper & Row.

Something of an underground classic within the clinical psychological and counseling disciplines, this short book of nine essays by psychotherapist Allen Wheelis explores questions of freedom, necessity, and change for patients and others. He tells several extremely compelling stories of his own experiences with his father and points to the centrality of "meaning" in therapeutic processes which lead to real character transformation.


Autobiography and Memoir: Selected Titles

Note: The emphasis in the list below are those works available in the LeMoyne College Library (designated by +).

+Adams, H. (1961). The education of Henry Adams: An autobiography (D. W. Brogan, Introduction). Boston, Houghton Mifflin. (Originally published 1918.) [E175.5.A174275]

+Adler, M. J. (1977). Philosopher at large: An intellectual autobiography. New York: Macmillan. [B945.A2864 A35]

First volume of this philosopher and arch-promoter of the Western intellectual canon.

+Adler, M. J. (1992). A second look in the rearview mirror: Further autobiographical reflections of a philosopher at large. New York: Macmillan. [B945.A286 S43 1992]

Sequel to author's 1977 autobiography.

+Andrews, W. L. (Ed.). (1986). Sisters of the spirit: Three black women's autobiographies of the nineteenth century. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. [BV3780.S57 1986]

Compilation of three autobiographical narratives: those of Jarena Lee (b. 1783), Zilpha Elaw (b. ca. 1790), and Julia A. Foote (1923-1900).

+Baldwin, J. (1988). The fire next time. New York: Laurel. (Original work published 1962) [E185.61.B195]

+Beers, C. (1944). A mind that found itself: An autobiography. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran & Company. (Original work published in 1908). [RC439 .B4 1944]

Extraordinarily influential story of the Yale graduate who experienced a mental breakdown and the harsh conditions of a variety of treatment settings before experiencing his own healing. Seminal work by the founder of the "mental hygiene" movement. Found in various versions.

+Bergman, I. (1988). The magic lantern: An autobiography (J. Tate, Trans.). New York: Viking. [PN1998.3.B47 A3 1988]

Autobiography of the Swedish film director, born in 1918.

+Berrigan, D. (1987). To dwell in peace: An autobiography. San Francisco: Harper & Row. [BX4705.B3845 A3 1987]

Autobiography of the Jesuit priest-poet and antiwar activist (who, early in his career, taught at Le Moyne College in the Theology, now Religious Studies, Department).

+Black Hawk. (1955). Black Hawk (Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak): An autobiography (D. Jackson, Ed.). Urbana, IL: Univesity of Illinois Press. (Original work published 1833) [E83.83 .B635]

+Bontemps, A. (Ed.). (1971). Five black lives: The autobiographies of Venture Smith, James Mars, William Grimes, the Rev. G. W. Offley, [and] James L. Smith. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press. (Original works published 1855-1897) [E444.F49]

+Brown, C. (1965). Manchild in the promised land. New York: Macmillan. [E185.97.B86 A3]

Extraordinarily influential autobiography of an African-American male who describes vividly growing up in Harlem, NY, from his birth in 1937.

+Bruce, L. (1972). How to talk dirty and influence people: An autobiography. Chicago, IL: Playboy Press. [PN2287.B726 A3 1972]

+Chesterton, G. K. (1936). The autobiography of G. K. Chesterton. New York: Sheed and Ward. (PR4453.C4)

+Conway, J. K. (Ed.). (1992). Written by herself: Autobiographies of American women: An anthology. New York: Vintage Books. [PS647.W6 W75 1992]

Autobiographical writings by Harriet Ann Jacobs, Zora Neale Hurston, Marian Anderson, Maya Angelou, Margaret Floy Washburn, S. Josephine Baker, Dorothy Reed Mendenhall, Margaret Morse Nice, Hortense Powdermaker, Cecilia Payne Gaposchkin, Margaret Mead, Lucy Larcom, Vida Dutton Scudder, Janet Scudder, Ellen Anderson Gholson Glasgow, Louise Bogan, Margaret Bourke, White, Maxine Hong Kingston, Anna Howard Shaw, Jane Addams, Anne Walter Fearn, Margaret Sanger, Anna Louise Strong, Mildred Ella (Babe) Didrikson Zaharias, Gloria Steinem.

+Darwin, C. (1958). The autobiography of Charles Darwin, 1809-1882. (N. Barlow, Ed.). New York: Harcourt, Brace. [QH31.D2A]

+Davis, C. T., & Gates, H. L., Jr. (Eds.). (1985). The slave's narrative. New York: Oxford University Press. [E444 .S575 1985]

The history and social conditions of slavery through the autobiographical narratives of African-Americans.

Davis, L. J. (2000). My sense of silence: Memoirs of a childhood with deafness. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Well received memoir of a hearing child with two deaf parents.

+Day, D. (1981). The long loneliness: The autobiography of Dorothy Day. San Francisco: Harper & Row. (Original work published 1952) [BX4668.D3 A33 1981]

+de Beauvoir, S. (1992). Force of circumstance: The autobiography of Simone de Beauvoir (vols. 1-2, R. Howard, Trans.) New York: Paragon House. [PQ2603.E362 Z46713 1992]

+de Beauvoir, S. (1992). The prime of life: The autobiography of Simone de Beauvoir (P. Green, Trans.). New York: Paragon House. (Original work published in 1962) [PQ2603.E362 Z46613 1992]

+Douglas, F. (1855/1980). Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, an American slave, written by himself (Benjamin Quarles, Ed.). Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press [E449 .D749 ]

+DuBois, W. E. B. (1968). The autobiography of W. E. B. DuBois: A soliloquy on viewing my life from the last decade of its first century. New York: International Publishers. [E185.97.D73A3]

+Frame, J. (1984). An angel at my table: An autobiography. New York: G. Braziller [PR9639.3.F7 Z463 1984]

Volume two of Frame's autobiography.

+Frame, J. (1985). The envoy from mirror city: An autobiography. New York: G. Braziller. [PR9639.3.F7Z464 1985]

Volume three of the autobiography of the New Zealand writer.

+Frame. J. (1982). To the is-land: An autobiography. New York: G. Braziller. [PR9639.3.F7 Z477 1982]

First volume of her autobiography.

+Franklin, B. (1981). The autobiography of Benjamin Franklin: A genetic text (J. A. L. Lemay & P. M. Zall, Eds.) Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press. [E302.6.F7A2 1981]

+Fry, J. (1974). Being different: The autobiography of Jane Fry (R. Bogdan, Ed.). New York: Wiley. [RC557 .F78]

+Gandhi, M. (1954). Autobiography: The story of my experiments with truth (M. Desai, Trans.). Washington, DC: Public Affairs Press. (Original work published 1927-29) [DS481.G3 A]

Gilmore, Mikal. (1994). Shot in the heart. New York: Doubleday. [HV6529.G55 1994]

Mikal Gilmore, a music critic and rock journalist, is the youngest brother of Gary Gilmore, the first person executed (by firing squad) after the reinstatement of the death penalty by the US Supreme Court almost twenty years ago. In this riveting autobiographical study of his family, Mikal comes to terms with the origins of the monster inside his brother by tracing the history of both his parents as well as his own family. He offers an unforgettable narrative linking the baleful career of his older brother to the themes of sociopathy and cruelty in his father and the wistful, unsettled identity of his mother. One of the most beautifully written and compelling memoirs to appear in the last quarter-century.

+Gregory, D. (1964). Nigger: An autobiography. New York: Dutton. [PN2287.G68 A3]

The African-American comedian and early civil rights leader recounts his experiences of growing up and his work within the movement. His provocative and troubling title suggests the hostility of the world of his youth detailed in this book.

+Howe, I. (1982). A margin of hope: An intellectual autobiography. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. [F128.9.J5 H59 1982]

The influential historian and author of The World of Our Fathers examines his own development in the tradition of New York City Jewish radicals.

Hull, J. M. (1990). Touching the rock: An experience of blindness. New York: Pantheon Books.

+Johnson, C. H. (Ed.). (1969). God struck me dead: Religious conversion experiences and autobiographies of ex-slaves. Philadelphia, PA: Pilgrim Press. [BV4930.F5 1969]

+Johnson, J. W. (1960). The autobiography of an ex-coloured man. New York: Hill and Wang. [PS3519.O2625.A8 1960]

Karr, M. (1995). The liar's club: A memoir. New York: Viking.

+Kemplen, T. (1992). From roots to roses: The autobiography of Tilda Kemplen (N. Herzberg, Ed.). Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press. [HV40.32.K46 A3 1992]

Short, transcribed narrative of a volunteer worker in East Tennessee.

+Levi, P. (1984). The periodic table. New York: Schocken.

The autobiography of the scientist and Holocaust prisoner who later became another of its victims in suicide.

+Liebman, M. (1992). Coming out conservative: an autobiography. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. [E840.8.L47A3 1992]

Conservative, gay politician speaks about his homosexuality.

Michener, A. J. (1998). Becoming Anna: The autobiography of a sixteen-year-old. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

This harrowing diary-like memoir of a teenage girl recounts years of psychological and physical abuse by both parents and a psychologist-grandmother. Subsequent committal to a private and, then, public mental hospital brings no relief as "Tiffany," the narrator, suggests that the environment and role expectancies of the mental health system is still as awful as Erving Goffman, David Rosenhan, and critics of earlier generations portrayed. This book has received decidedly mixed reviews (see customer comments at and Barnes and Noble for a sharp sense of the disagreements): this memoir is either sympathetically seen as the powerful and true-to-life raw observations of a decidedly gifted writer whose new identity as "Anna Michener" has been secured by her recall of the past, or negatively as the overwrought and narrowly-biased (perhaps, mostly fictional) story of a teenager who still can't see herself with any distance and, hence, cannot acknowledge her own part in her hospitalization. Be aware that the text takes an unremittingly and overwhelmingly negative viewpoint not only toward her family of origin, but also to almost every actor within the mental health settings in which she found herself. Readers will have to judge the plausibility of such a narrative stance and the overall coherence of her story. An unusual book for an academic publisher to distribute.

+Newman, J. H. (1956). Apologia pro vita sua. New York: Image/Doubleday. (Original work published 1864)

John Henry Cardinal Newman's (1801-1890) classic autobiography of his early life, education at Oxford, and religious career as an Anglican priest through his conversion to Roman Catholicism in his 40s.

+Olivier, L. (1982). Confessions of an actor: An autobiography. New York: Simon and Schuster. [PN2598.O55 A33 1982]

+Pruitt, I. (1967). A daughter of Han: The autobiography of a Chinese working woman (from the story told her by Ning Lao T'ai-t'ai). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. (Original work published 1945) [CT1828.N5A3 1967]

Reid, J. [Andrew Tobias]. (1973). The best little boy in the world. New York: Putnam.

The coming-of-age memoir of pseudonymous John Reid (actually, the financial analyst Andrew Tobias) in a world before the gay revolution. Followed by The Best Little Boy in the World Grows Up (Andrew Tobais, 1998)

Rodriquez, R. (1981). Hunger of memory: The education of Richard Rodriguez (an autobiography). Boston, MA: Godine.

Rodriguez, R. (1992). Days of obligation: An argument with my Mexican father. New York: Viking.

Rose, P. (Ed.). (1993). The Norton book of women's lives. New York: W. W. Norton. [CT3225.R67 1993]

Anthology of 61 selections from autobiographies, journals, and memoirs of 20th century women.

+Roth, P. (1988). The facts: A novelist's autobiography. New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux. [PS3568.O855 Z467 1988]

Roth enters into an argument with Zuckerman, one of his major characters, and is accused of dissembling, of placating critics by portraying only one side of his life. See Chapter 5 of Mark Freeman's excellent study (1993) for analysis of Roth's dilemma/deception(?)

+Russell, B. (1967). The autobiography of Bertrand Russell. Boston, MA: Little, Brown. [B1649.R94.A33]

+Seale, B. (1978). A lonely rage: The autobiography of Bobby Seale. New York: Times Books. [E185.97.S4 A33 1978]

+Spark, M. (1993). Curriculum vitae: Autobiography. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. [PR6037.P29Z463 1993]

+Stein, E. (1986). Life in a Jewish family: Her unfinished autobiographical account (L. Gelber & R. Leuven, Eds., J. Koeppel, Trans.). Vol. 1. The collected works of Edith Stein. Washington, DC: ICS Publications. [B3332.S672 E54 1985]

+Stein, G. (1933). The autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company. [PS3537.T323 Z5 1933]

The life of Gertrude Stein written by herself as though it were the autobiography of her secretary, Alice B. Toklas.

+Stokes, R. P. (1992). I belong to the working class: the unfinished autobiography of Rose Pastor Stokes (H. Shapiro & D. L. Sterling). Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press. [HQ1413.S69 A3 1992]

Socialist & feminist who lived 1879-1933.

+Teresa of Avila, St. (1960). The life of Teresa of Jesus: The autobiography of St. Teresa of Avila (E. Allison Peers, Ed. & Trans.). Garden City, NY: Image Books. [BX4700.T4 A31 1960]

Spiritual autobiography of the mystic Spanish nun (1515-1582) who was declared a "Doctor of the Church".

+Therése de Lisieux, St. (1926). Saint Therése of Lisieux, the Little Flower of Jesus: a revised translation of the definitive Carmelite edition of her autobiography & letters, together with the story of her canonization, and an account of several of her heavenly roses (T. N. Taylor, Trans.). New York: P. J. Kenedy. [BX4700.T5 A2 1926]

+Therése de Lisieux, St. (1976). The story of a soul: The autobiography of Saint Therése of Lisieux (2nd ed., J. Clarke, Trans.). Washington, ICS Publications. [BQX1798.T39A 1976]
Translation of Histoire d'une âme of Therése (1873-1897).

Tobias, A. (1998). The best little boy in the world grows up. New York: Random House.

The sequel to financial analyst Andrew Tobias's earlier memoir (written under the pseudonym, John Reid, in 1973) reflecting on the last quarter century of his life within the context of the nation's changing response to homosexuality.

+"True confessions: The age of the literary memoir". (1996, May 12). [Special issue]. New York Times Magazine.

This special issue of the magazine includes excerpts from memoirs and reflections of 12 current authors (Lisa Michaels, Luc Sante, Veronica Chambers, Art Spiegelman, Mary Gordon, Leonard Michaels, Phyllis Rose, Chang-Rae Lee, Susan Cheever, Joyce Carol Oates, David Beers, and Mary Kerr).

+Vico, G. (1944). The autobiography of Giambattista Vico (M. H. Fisch & T. G. Bergin, Trans.) Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. (from an edition originally published in 1929). [B3583.V53]

+Washington, B. T. (1951). Up from slavery: An autobiography. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. (Original work published 1901) [E185.97 .W31]

+Watts, A. (1972). In my own way: An autobiography, 1915-1965. New York: Vintage Books. [BL1473.W3 A34]

Autobiography of the explorer of Eastern mysticism and its potential to balance Western thought.

+Williams, D. (1992). Nobody nowhere: The extraordinary autobiography of an autistic. New York: Times Books. [RC553.A88 W55 1992]

+X, Malcolm, & Haley, A. (1992). The autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: Ballantine Books. (Original work published 1965) [E185.97.L5 A3 1992]


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Hevern, V. W. (2003, June). Autobiography, memoir, and historical biography. Narrative psychology: Internet and resource guide. Retrieved [enter date] from the Le Moyne College Web site:

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