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April 2, 2022

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PSY 340 Brain and Behavior

Study Guide for Test #3 (Modules 8-9-10)

   


Module 8 Wakefulness & Sleeping (Chapter 8) Classes 19-21

Class 19
-chronobiology
-endogenous cycle
-circannual
-circamensual
-circadian
-chronotypes (larks vs. owls)
-where is the human biological clock?
-temperature as control of human body rhythms

-melanopsin ganglion cells (= intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells or ipRGCs)
-retinohypothalamic tract
-superchiasmatic nucleus (SCN) 
-pineal gland
-Non-24 Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder

-melatonin: how does this relate to sleep?
-why may melatonin be  problematic as a drug?
-zeitgeber
-entrainment

-light, food, noise, ambient temperature as human zeitgebers
-jet lag
-"social jet lag"

-what are problems associated with shift work
-possible relation between jet lag/shift work & obesity/type II diabetes via daily rhythm of gut microbes

Class 20

-nature of sleep (highly organized, reduced physical activity, not coma, etc.)
-coma vs. vegetative state vs. minimally conscious state: how do these differ?
-how is brain death defined?
-electroencephalograph (EEG)
-polysomnograph
-brain waves: alpha, beta
-definition & characteristics of sleep
-the sleep cycle: stages, NREM, REM
-REM: components
-pontomesencephalon (reticular activating system)
-basal forebrain
-effect of antihistamine drugs in hypothalamus
-orexin (hypocretin)
-PGO waves
-insomnia
-sleep apnea
-narcolepsy: symptoms; cause
-cataplexy
-periodic limb movement disorder
-REM behavior disorder
-night terror
-sleep walking
Class 21

-sleep & energy conservation
-hibernation
-effects of sleep deprivation
-sleep & memory storage (NREM vs REM)
-glymphatic system in brain
-sleep & toxic waste removal
-relationship between longer sleep and amount of REM
-theories of why REM (memory; stimulate nervous system of infants)
-development of dreams: complexity with aging
-activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming
-J. Alan Hobson
 -activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming
-Protoconsciousness theory of dreaming
 -Neurocognitive theory of dreaming (Domhoff)
 -clinico-anatomical hypothesis of dreaming




Module 9 Reproductive Behaviors (Chapter 10) Classes 22-23

Class 22
-X, Y chromosome
-protein & peptide hormones & second messenger effects
-steroid hormones
-"sensitive period" in pregnancy for sex difference development-Sex Region Y gene: function
-cortisol as stress hormone
-catabolic vs. anabolic steroids
-sex hormones
-gonads
-androgens vs. estrogens
-progesterone
-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)

-sexually dimorphic nucleus
-estradiol as masculinizing hypothalamus of males

-role of alpha-fetoprotein
-sex differences in childhood behavior
-effects of mother's exposure to phthalates

-activating effects of testosterone on sexual & nonsexual behaviors
-oxytocin's effects
-SSRI's side effect on male sexual performance
-Depo-Provera

-organizing vs. activating effects of hormones
-periovulatory period, psychology of
-premenstrual syndrome
-are there extreme brain differences between males and females?
-mosaicism in male/female brains -Janet Shibley Hyde's gender similarities hypothesis
-effects of hormones on parenting behaviors in mammals
-precocial vs semiprecocial vs. altricial offspring
-human parent-infant caregiving pattern: rapid formation of attachment, behavioral synchrony, parent-infant bond as bsis of family, importance of culture

-human mothers: need for sensitivity & responsiveness to infant cues/signals
-barriers for mothers in caring for offspring: her experience of maternal warmth as child, affective disorders, postpartum maternal psychopathology

Class 23

- how does "evolutionary psychology" explain specific human mating behaviors (interest in multiple mates, mate selection, jealousy)
-gender identity
-intersex vs. transgender/transexual
-true hermaphrodite? What does this mean?
-Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH): cause & behavioral effects in girls
-Androgen insensitivity syndrome in males-5-alpha-reductase deficiency in men: what is it?
-rearing intersex children: current emphasis on surgery only on adults (case of David Reimer)
-how are gay vs. straight men different in behavioral terms (other than sexual attraction)?
-role of genetic factors in sexual orientation: is there evidence for genetics? American vs. Swedish data.
- what sorts of theories have been proposed to explain the possible evolutionary origins of homosexuality? (kin selection, female fecundity, etc.)
-theory of maternal immune system's role: fraternal birth order effect
-homosexuality in animal species
-brain anatomy differences in sexual orientation (Simon LeVay's work)

Module 10 • Emotional Behaviors • Classes 24-27

Class 24 
 
-Paul Ekman's model of emotion
-Joseph LeDoux's model of emotion 
-Lisa Feldman Barrett's Model/Theory of Constructed Emotion
-Brain as costly in metabolic processes & move to predictive coding
-emotion: components (cognition, feeling, action [tendency])
-James-Lange Theory of Emotions
-Walter B. Cannon & flight or flight
-What is the evidence for an against the notion that autonomic nervous system is necessary for (strong) emotions?
-Pure Autonomic Failure
-Panic disorder
-Facial feedback hypothesis and Wagenmaker's 2016 failure to replicate
-Does the limbic system show distinctive areas that correspond to individual emotions? [no]
-Ekman's theory of basic emotions (facial expression): how many emotions? What is the strength of his evidence for recognizing facial expression?
-Barbara Fredrickson' Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions: how do positive emotions help humans?

Joshua Green
-what do we learn from PET & fMRI scans of brains facing the Trolley Car, Footbridge, Lifeboat, & Hospital dilemmas?
-brain areas showing strong activity for emotional decision making: cingulate cortex, angular gyrus, medial frontal gyrus

-Antonio Damasio
how does brain damage to the prefrontal cortex affect decision making?
-Are emotions an enemy or help to good decision making?



Class 25

 -what evokes attack and/or escape behaviors (Threats! Danger!)?
-environmental variables associated with violence: childhood abuse, life in violent neighborhoods, lead exposure, maternal smoking
-genetic factors associated with violence: genetic x environmental interaction and MAO-A (difference between males and females, e.g., Emotional reactivity to maltreatment in females as linked to highly active MAO-A)
-role of testosterone & attack behaviors
-"Triple Imbalance Hypothesis" of high testosterone, low cortisol, low serotonin
-low serotonin turnover & aggression: what is the relationship in nonhuman animals & humans?
-escape emotions (fear, anxiety)
-amygdala: role in the emotions
-Joseph LeDoux
-past model: "high vs. low" road in perception
-newer model: amygdala as "defensive survival detection circuit and emotion ("fear") as experienced as a conscious cognitive state in working memory
-Klüver-Bucy Sydrome
-"psychic blindness" in monkeys: insensitive to threats
-Urbach-Wiethe Disease & emotion: Patient S.M.

Panic disorder: symptoms
-PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder): symptoms, causes, prevalence (< 50%), biological predisposing factors (smaller hippocampus, lower cortisol, damaged amygdala)
-Pharmacological relief (medicines) from anxiety related to benzodiazepines & GABA-A receptors
-GABA-A receptor complex & postsynaptic inhibition
-alcohol/ethanol & GABA-A receptor complex
-Relearning to erase anxiety & memory reactivation & reconsolidation via propanolol. 
Class 26: Stress & Health

-pleasant & unpleasant stress
-Hans Seyle's theory of stress

-General Adaptation Syndrome: stages (alarm, resistance, exhaustion)
-HPA Axis
-damage to hippocampus by cortisol & disruption of negative feedback loop
-role of cortisol in short & long term stress?
-negative effects of cortisol on brain: functional (episodic memory), structural (hippocampus, decreased brain volume), and Alzheimer's disease (lower brain volume, hypometabolism, biomarker for deterioration)
-role of cytokines in brain
-effects of chronic stress on immune system
-role of severe child maltreatment on brain







This earliest version of this page was first posted March 6, 2005.