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March 20, 2021

  

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PSY 340 Brain and Behavior

Study Guide of Key Words, Concepts, & Persons for Modules 5, 6 & 7

   

Class 13: Research Methods in Neuropsychology

-Looking at the Effects of Brain Damage
-Paul Pierre Broca
-Broca's or expressive aphasia
-lesioning
-ablation
-stereotaxic instrument
-transcranial magntetic stimulation (TMS)
-Stimulate Brain Area to Analyze Resulting Behavioral Change
-optogenetics
-Recording Brain Activity during Behavior
-EEG (Electroencephalograph)
-PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scan using slightly radioactive glucose
-fMRI (Functional Magnetic Imaging) using hemoglobin as focus of magnetic field
-BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent) signal
-Default Mode Network (see column on right)
-Correlating Brain Anatomy & Behavior
-CAT (Computerized Axial Tomography) scan using low-dose x-rays
-MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scan using spin of hydrogen atoms under magnetic field

-human brains are not the largest nor have greatest mass vs. body size ratio
-moderate correlation between brain size and IQ tests
-Intelligence = abilities to cope successfully with environment (physical, interpersonal, cultural)
-Males > Females in brain size but NO IQ differences
-Male vs. Female brains do differ, but significance is not clear
Class 14: Networks of the Brain
-Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) focusing on molecules of water under magnetic field
-flow of water as either isotrophic (in all directions) or anisotrophic (constrained to specific directions)
-Notion of the "Connectome" and difficulties mapping connections at the microscale or mesoscale levels
-Notion of Large Scale Brain Networks: both structural and functional/dynamic connections
-Default Mode Network (DMN = "Task Negative Network")
-DMN Functions: daydreaming, internally-directed thought, autobiographical reflection, decision-making about future, "mentalizing"
-DMN as developing over childhood and adolescence (not in-born)
-Salience Network: choosing what is most important to pay attention to now based on both external and internal stimuli
-Executive Control Network (aka Fronto-Parietal Network): coordinating actual behavior via sustained attention & working memory, choosing how to respond, suppressing irrelevant or erroneous responses
-"Dysexecutive Syndrome" expressed in cognitive, emotional, & behavioral symptoms/problems
-Dorsal Attention Network: "Top-down" choosing of what to pay attention to
-Ventral Attentrion Network: "Bottom-up" grabbing our attention by environmental stimuli

Class 15: Development of the Brain
-embryology
-fetus
-neural plate
-neural tube
-stem cells
-neuron development: proliferation, migration, differentiation of neural cell precursors, myelination, synatogenesis
-can adult brain develop new neurons? Yes (olfactory receptors; hippocampus) vs. No (cerebral cortex)
-chemical pathfinding
-surplus neuron production
-chemical pathfinding by axons
-Roeger Sperry's experiment with newts
-chemical gradient
-Gerald Edelman's theory of "neural darwinism"
-nerve growth factor (NGF)
-Rita Levi-Montalcini & muscle NGF
-apoptosis
-neurotrophins
-development of nervous system: roles of chemistry vs. experience
-dendritic branching
-vulnerability during development: malnutrition, toxic chemicals, infections
-fetal alcohol syndrome
-effects of cigarette smoke on development
-Fine tuning by experience & dendritic branching
-importance of exercise
-Effects of special experiences (e.g., blindness) on cortex & its functioning
-effects of prolonged practice on cortex, e.g., by musicians
-focal hand dystonia & its cause
-adolescents & antisaccade task

Class 16: Plasticity after Brain Damage

-brain plasticity: what does this concept mean?
-stroke
-traumatic head injury: closed vs. open
-rotational forces
-coup & contrecoup
-ischemic stroke
-hemorrhagic stroke
-cell death: release of glutamate & role of Ca++ ions flooding neuron
-preventative treatment after stroke
-tissue plasminogen activator (TPA)
-cooling brain, effect of
-diaschisis
-mechanisms of recovery after brain damage: axon regrowth & collateral axon sprouts
-learned adjustments
-deafferented limb
-spinal cord damage to axons
-denervation supersensitivity
-reorganized sensory representation
-Vilayanur Ramachandran
-phantom limb phenomena & treatment


Classes 17-18-19: Vision
-Vision as constructive process
-Vision as a coding process
-Vision as a complex process
-Human vision as limited, e.g, no infrared or ultraviolet waves, no temperature seen.
-Pupil, lens, iris
-Retina & its layers
-photoreceptors (cones & rods) & their functions
-horizontal/bipolar cells
-ganglion cells
-blind spot
-optic nerve
-fovea & its functions
-periphery of the retina: how it is different from fovea
-transduction
-range of human vision: ca. 350-720 nm
-trichromatic theory of color
-Herman von Helmholtz
-differing types of cones
-visual field
-opponent-process theory of color vision
-negative afterimage
-colorblindness (red-green; blue-yellow)
-achromatopsia
-retinex theory of vision
-color constancy
-Edwin Land
-Photoreceptor layer: arrangement of layers
-Cones vs. rods
-relationship between ganglion cells & cones in different parts of retina
-lateral inhibition
-receptive field
-Pathway from retina to occipital cortex
-optic chiasm: what crosses over?
-lateral geniculate nucleus
-optic radiations
-occipital cortex & simple aspects of shape
-stereoscopic depth perception
-blindsight: phenomenon of & possible explanation (koniocelllar connection)
-Ventral stream: where & what it does
-Dorsal stream: where & what it does
-simple cells in V1
-complex & hypercomplex cells in V1/V2
-Visual agnosia: what is it? Relation to temporal lobe
-Prosopagnosia: what is is? Role of fusiform gyrus
-Alexia & the Visual Word Form area
-Color constancy & role of V4
-motion blindness

-infants & visual stimuli for faces
-development & attention to moving objects vs. stationary objects
-prefrontal cortex maturing to control  visual attention
-general role of experience in visual system development
-deprivation of visual stimulation in one eye: effects
-strabismus & amblyopia
-deprivation of visual experience into late childhood & its effects