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Feb 27, 2021
  

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PSY 340 Brain and Behavior

Study Guide: Test #1 Key Words, Concepts, and Persons REVISED 9/17/2020

   

The listing of words, concepts, and persons below provides you with a key to what I expect you will know for Test #1 which will have a multiple-choice format.

Introduction: Classes 01 & 02

-Evolutionary Psychology
-Living creatures as coping with environments (physical, biological, social)
-Living creatures as sharing similar body/brains because of similar coping challenges
-Brain as mechanism to cope with the world
-Behavior = how a creature copes with the environment
-Living creatures (including humans) have no direct access to environment: only information in the brain

-mind vs. brain problem
-dualism (Cartesianism; René Descartes)
-monism
-consciousness as emergent property of mind
-easy vs. hard problems: the "hard problem"-Perception occurs in brain, not "out there"
Four approaches in biological psychology
-Physiological
-Developmental/Ontogenetic: growth & development

-Evolutionary: how different animals have similar structures or behaviors
-Myth of the triune or reptilian brain
-Functional: Why a structure/behavior developed in a specific animal

The Predictive Brain

The "Extended Mind" Hypothesis
Class 03: Genetics of Behavior

Mendelian genetics 
-Gregor Mendel
-James Watson & Francis Crick

-Heritable (single) traits 
-dominant vs. recessive genes 
-homozygous vs. heterozygous parents 
-DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) 
-RNA (ribonucleic acid) 
-"base pairs"

-chromosomes: 23 pairs 
-X, Y chromosome
-autosomal genes
-sex-limited vs. sex-linked genes
-causes of genetic changes: mutations, duplication or deletion, epigenetics
-role of the histone molecule in DNA
-relationship between methyl group (CH3) inactivation & stress
-polygenetic inheritance
-heritability: what does this measure?
-monozygotic vs. dizygotic twins


-ways of measuring heritability: twin studies, adopted child studies, examining specific genes across families
-multiplier effect
-phenylketonuria (PKU)
-wrong ideas about evolution: Lamarkian evolution
-sociobiology
-Edward O. Wilson
-explanations for altruistic behavior (simple altruism vs. reciprocal altruism vs. kin selection)

Class 04: Class Cells of the Nervous System
-Neuron -Glia/glial cells
-Ratio of ~ 1:1 for neurons/glial cells (new estimate) in CNS
-Camilio Golgi
-Santiago Ramón y Cajal
-Central Nervous System: components
-Cell: roles of basic components-nucleus, mitochondrion, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, protein channels
-neuron membrane
-neuron structure: dendrite, soma, axon hillock, axon, presynaptic terminal buttons
-myelin sheath
-Nodes of Ranvier
-sensory neuron
-motor neuron
-interneuron
-dendritic spines
-direction of signal in neuron
(dendrite->soma-axon)
-astrocytes: functions
-oligodendrocytes: function (structure, insulation, metabolic coupling w/neuron)
-Schwann cells (insulation in peripheral NS)
-microglia: waste removal & pruning of synapses
-radial glia
-what is a nerve?
-blood-brain barrier: role/function
-endothelial cells
-active transport of molecules of glucose, amino acids, vitamins, hormones
-brain's use of oxygen
-thiamine (vitamin B1): role
 
Classes 05 & 06: Nerve Impulse
-ion
-electrostatic gradient
-concentration gradient
-resting potential (-70 mV)
-Sodium-Potassium pump (Na-K pump)
-generation of action potential at axon hillock
-voltage-activated gates (Na+/K+)
-threshold of excitation (ca. -40mV)
-stages of action potential: the opening & closing of the Na+/K+ gates
-all or nothing law
-hyperpolarization (-70 to -90 mV)
-depolarization (-70 to +50 mV)
-refractory period
-role of nerve poisons, e.g., puffer fish
-local anesthetic drugs (Lidocaine, Xylocaine) vs. general anesthetics
-All or None Law
-frequency expresses magnitude of sensation
-saltatory conduction (role of Nodes of Ranvier)
-local neuron & communication by graded potentials
-10% brain use myth

 

Class 07: Concept of the Synapse
 
-Charles Scott Sherrington & his conclusions about the synapse
-reflex arc
-synapse
-interneuron (intrinsic neuron)
-temporal summation
-spatial summation
-John Eccles & temporal summation
-presynaptic membrane
-postsynaptic membrane
-EPSPs (excitatory post-synaptic potentials)
-IPSPs (inhibitory post-synaptic potentials)
-spontaneous firing rate
-Otto Loewi's discovery of synaptic chemical transmission
-Vagusstoff (= acetylcholine)


Class 08: Chemical Events at Synapse 
-synaptic vesicles
-transmitter synthesis in soma
-transport of neurotransmitter to terminal button
-influx of Ca++ ions because of action potential
-exocytosis
-reuptake
-monoamine oxidase (MAO)
-postsynaptic receptors
-depolarization vs. hyperpolarization-glutamate: role
-GABA: role
-acetylcholine (ACh): roles
-serotonin (5-HT): role
-dopamine (DA): roles including salience
-norepinepherine (NE)
-endorphin
-substance P
-neuropeptide Y
-nitric oxide (NO)
-adenosine & caffeine's effect
-ionotropic effects: EPSPs & IPSPs
-metabotropic effects
-second messenger systems
-variations in receptors: multiple types for each neurotransmitter 
-hormones
-pituitary: anterior vs. posterior
-inactivation of neurotransmitters
-SSRI drugs & Ritalin as reuptake examples
-hydrolysis
-acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
-negative feedback from postsynaptic cell
-autoreceptors: role
-electrical synapse (gap junction)
-hormones
-endocrine glands
-pituitary gland & the hypothalmus
-posterior pituitary as neural tissue
-anterior pituitary as glandular tissue

Class 09:  Substance Abuse & Addiction

-what are the trends in drug abuse since 2000, especially since 2010?
-What recent changes in mortality and drug-associated death rates have been documented in the East and Midwest of the US? Among non-college educated Whites? Among African Americans?
-What is meant by "deaths of despair"?
-agonist drug effect
-antagonist drug effect
-drug affinity
-drug efficacy
-differing types of activity at the synapse related to drug use

-James Olds & Peter Milner
-nucleus accumbens: role in addiction via either pleasure or attention-getting
-cravings, wanting, salience as result of DA
-tolerance
-withdrawal-stimulants: their effects in users? their effects on dopamine receceptors
-amphetamine
-cocaine
-methylphenidate/Ritalin
-MDMA/"Ecstasy"
-nicotine
-opiates (opioids): where do natural opiates come from? Effects of opioids on nervous system and other body systems
-heroin
-fentanyl

-use of methadone
-THC: cannabinoids: relation to presynaptic membrane receptors
-positive and negative effects of marijuana
-hallucinogenic drugs, e.g., LSD-Alcohol (ethanol, ETOH): overall effects on nervous system
-Type I vs. Type II alcoholism
-predisposing factors for alcoholism (long-form dopamine type 4 receptor gene; more active COMT gene)
-Treating opioid abuse: role of suboxone and methadone

Class 10 Structure of the Vertebrate Nervous System

-central nervous system (CNS) vs. peripheral nervous system (PNS)
-somatic nervous system (SNS): general functions
-autonomic nervous system (ANS): general functions
-sympathetic nervous system: general functions
-parasympathetic nervous system: general functions

-directions within the nervous system (NS): diagrams in notes
-sagittal, coronal & horizontal planes
-dorsal vs. ventral
-superior vs. inferior
-rostral vs. dorsal/caudal
-anterior vs. posterior
-lateral vs. medial
-proximal vs. distal
-lamina (laminae)
-column
-tract/projection
-nucleus (nuclei)
-ganglion (ganglia)
-spinal cord
-Bell-Magendie Law
-dorsal root ganglion
-gray vs white matter in spinal cord & cerebral cortex




-OTC drugs and the ANS (e.g., cold/flu tablets)
-divisions of the brain: hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain
[major or general functions of each of the structures below]
-medulla oblongata
-pons
-ascending reticular system (reticular activating system)
-Cerebellum: # of cells, movement & balance, time-related behaviors, learning & conditioning, cognition, language & affect; building models of body interacting with world
-superior colliculus
-inferior colliculus
-substantia nigra
-limbic system
-thalamus
-hypothalamus
-pituitary gland
-basal ganglia
-hippocampus
-ventricles of the brain
-cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)
-choroid plexus
-hydrocephalus

Classes 11 & 12 Cerebral Cortex

-cerebral cortex
-gray/white matter
-commissures: corpus callosum & anterior commissure
-sulcus (sulci)
-Central sulcus

-Fissure
-gyrus (gyri)
-Pre & postcentral gyri, that is the motor strip and the somatosensory strip

[Location & general functions of the lobes]
-Occipital: major role
-Parietal: major role(s)
-Temporal: major role(s)
-Klüver-Bucy Syndrome: what does it tell us about the Temporal Lobe's function?
-Frontal: major role(s)
-cortical blindness
-primary visual cortex
-primary auditory cortex
-prefrontal cortex
-working memory
-behavior that depends upon contextual cues
-lobotomy/psychosurgery
-the "binding" problem



This page was first posted February 9, 2005.