April 29, 2023

[Brain Image]    

PSY 340 Brain and Behavior

Study Guide for Test #4


Module 11 Classes 33 & 34 Learning & Memory

-Ivan Pavlov
-classical conditioning
-B. F. Skinner
-operant conditioning
-Karl Lashley
-Lashley's findings with rat experiments
-cortical cuts
-tissue ablation
-Lashley's principles of equipotentiality & mass action
-Richard Thompson & his research on rabbit eye blink conditioning
-conditioning & the lateral pontine nucleus of the cerebellum
-Donald O. Hebb & his model of memory: short- & long-term memory
-George Miller: Storage capacity 7 +/- 2 chunks of info
-rehearsal, role of
-reverberating circuits
-consolidation of long-term memories
-memories as labile &  reconsolidated
-Alan Baddeley & his model of working memory

-phonological rehearsal loop
-visuospatial sketch pad
-central executive control system
-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex & delayed response tasks
-Patient H.M. (Henry Molaison): type of brain damage
-effects of bilateral medial temporal lobe resection (removal of the hippocampus)
-anterorgrade amnesia
-retrograde amnesia
-declarative vs. procedural memory
-explicit vs. implicit memory

-theories of hippocampal functioning
-explicit declarative memory & hippocampus

-spatial memory: evidence for role of hippocampus (e.g., London taxi drivers, birds)
-place & grid cells in hippocampus
-configural learning & binding
-Basal ganglia for habit or implicit learning
-Wernicke's encephalopathy & thiamine deficiency
-Korsakoff's Syndrome: deficits of cognition
-chronological reasoning difficulties
-Alzheimer's disease (AD): symptoms
-AD & Down's syndrome
-APOE-4 gene allele as risk factor
-possible role of neuro-inflammatory processes in AD

-Amyloid plaque
-neurofibrillary tangle
-difference between overall brain of normal vs. Alzheimer's patient
-"co-pathologies" problem
Class 35 Lateralization of Function
-Lateralization: what does this term mean?
-Lateralization of the visual system (visual fields processed in contralateral hemispheres)
-Lateralization of the auditory system
-corpus callosum
-ipsilateral vs. contralateral
-taste & smell as ipsilaterally processed
-Split-brain operation: reason for & what it is
-"commissurotomy" (cutting corpus callosum)
-Roger W. Sperry
-right vs. left hemisphere differences in perceiving emotions, tone of voice (prosody), details vs. overall patterns
-Role of right vs. left hemispheres in speech, audition, emotions, vision, etc.
-"Spatial frequency" hypothesis
-planum temporale: hemispheric differences
-Effects of agenesis of the corpus callosum
-handedness & speech dominance in the general population
-"left" vs. "right brained" persons as a myth: no evidence that people rely more on one or the other hemisphere

Class 37 McGilchrist's The Master & His Emissary (The Divided Brain)

-hemispheric asymmetry as an evolutionary product in humans and other animals
-the right hemisphere's (RH) understanding of the world it experiences (individual, changing, beings in the context of the world)
-the left hemisphere's (LH) understanding of the world (abstract, about manipulating things, fixed, isolated, general, ultimately lifeless)
-the RH as "Master" (scanning for predators, etc.) and the LH as the "Emissary" (focusing on where prey might be found & captured)
-Over many centuries, the development of culture in the West has favored the LH over the RH

Class 38 Evolution & the Physiology of Language

-productivity of human language
-Language abilities of chimpanzees & bonobos
-Irene Pepperberg & her research with Alex, African gray parrot
-theory for evolution of intelligence in primates & parrots (life in a complex socio-ecological system)
-Brain-Body Mass ratios and language
-role of phonological loop in human language

 -importance of gestures involving face and mouth
-language & general intelligence: Challenge by the "KE" family
-Fedorenko's findings on intellectual skills of patients with global aphasia
-Williams Syndrome & language skills
-Noam Chomsky
-LAD (Language Acquisition device), Theory of
-critical period theories:experience of late vs. early language learners; deaf children
-feral children & use of language
-Robin Dunbar's social brain hypothesis about language (in notes; not in book)
-Broca's/nonfluent aphasia
-Wernicke's/fluent aphasia
-why are music and language similar?
-dyslexia: definition & characteristics of dyslexic persons
-underactivation of Verbal Word Form area
-underactivation of left temporoparietnal cortex
-overactivation of left inferior frontal cortex
-problems among dyslexic persons: dysphonic dyslexia, dyseidetic dyslexia, poor auditory memory, attentional difficulties (readers with fixation point 5-10 degrees off center)

Module 12 Psychological Disorders

Class 39 Approaches to Diagnosing Mental Disorders (notes)

-What is a taxonomy?
-What does it mean "to carve nature at its joints"?
-What is a nosology?
-ICD: International Classification of -Diseases (from WHO)
-Categorical approach to classifying mental disorders
-Emil Kraepelin: what did he do regarding the psychoses?

-Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3, 4, 5, 5-TR) of the American Psychiatric Association
-Dimensional approach to classifying mental disorders
-What do GWASs suggest about the nature of mental disorders?
-What are problems with the categorical approach?
  disorders on a continuum
  low reliability of diagnosis
  multiple forms of a disorder
overlooked patients with sub- threshold symptoms

HiTOP (Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology)
-General psychopathology factor ("p")
-2nd highest layer: emotional dysfunction, psychosis, externalizing problems

Class 40 Schizophrenia (SCZ)

What is the split in schizophrenia?
-Positive symptoms of SCZ: psychotic cluster (delusions; hallucinations) & disorganized cluster (inappropriate emotions, bizarre behavior; thought disorder)
-Negative symptoms of SCZ 
- Cognitive impairments: both in childhood before symptoms appear & in adulthood
-Demographic data & SCZ: changing prevalence rate (old 1%-> new 0.3 to 0.7%)
-Gender differences (M>F), urbanicity, migrant status, economic development level
-Genetics & SCZ: mono- vs. dizygotic twins (twin & family studies)
-adoptive children & SCZ

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) & SCZ
-Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
-Recent (2014 & 2018) findings from GWASs about the nature of SCZ
-Arnedo et al (2014) on SCZ as multiple distinct disorders
-Neurodevelopmental hypothesis for SCZ 
-Season-of-birth effect 
-Mild brain abnormalities in SCZ: brain volume; enlarged ventricles; smaller cell bodies
-Recent findings about white matter brain connectivity abnormalities
-the delay in symptom appearance problem in SCZ: early development vs. later pathology

-Neuro-inflammatory hypothesis: overactive immune system
-regular vs. defective synaptic pruning in childhood and adolescence
-microglial cells as activated by cytokines
-Dopamine hypothesis

-Thorazine & phenothiazines
-Substance-induced psychosis
-Glutamate hypothesis
-Phencyclidine (PCP)-induced psychosis
-Mesocorticolimbic DA system
-tardive dyskinesia
-Atypical antipsychotic medications: side effects

Classes 41-42 Mood Disorders

-Traditional categorical approach to mental disorders (discrete or separate kinds of illness_
Emerging challenges to the traditional model: dimensional approaches & "family of disorders" approaches
-Major depression: symptoms
-genetics: heritability, lack of evidence for a gene x environment effect (Culverhouse et al. 2017 study)
-life stressors as a risk for depression
-gender differences in depression
-brain functioning problems in depression
-structural problems (e.g., loss of volume, decreased synpatic connectivity, etc.)
-actions of antidepressant drugs at the synapse (check out diagram)

-tricyclic antidepressants
-MAO & MAO Inhibitors (MAOIs)
-SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
-St. John's wort as treatment & warnings about
-time delay & effects of antidepressant medications, e.g, BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor)
-ketamine as a rapid-acting treatment: new medication (Spravato) using Esketamine
-Moda-Sava et al (2019) finding ketamine causing new growth of dendritic spines
-Irving Kirsch's argument about antidepressant meds
-U Penn argument about antidepressant meds
-psychotherapy vs. drug therapy for major depression

-Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT): side effects and use with depressed patients
-Deep-brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression
-Mania: symptoms
-Bipolar Disorder (BP) I vs. II
-demographics of BP
-Genetics & bipolar disorder
-neurobiological factors in BP
-treatment of bipolar disorder: lithium salts & anti-convulsant drugs; light & dark therapy
-Seasonal affective disorder: nature of disorder, effect of light?
-possible mechanisms to cause SAD
-light therapy/phototherapy
-dawn simulation

The first version of this page was posted on April 12, 2005.