last updated:

April 1, 2023

[Brain Image]    

PSY 340 Brain and Behavior

Study Guide for Test #3 (Modules 8-9-10)


Module 8 Wakefulness & Sleeping (Chapter 8) Notes for Classes 22-23-24

Class 19
-endogenous cycle
-chronotypes (larks vs. owls)
-where is the human biological clock?
-temperature as control of human body rhythms
-melanopsin ganglion cells (= intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells or ipRGCs)
-retinohypothalamic tract
-superchiasmatic nucleus (SCN) 
-pineal gland
-Non-24 Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder
-melatonin: how does this relate to sleep?
-why may melatonin be  problematic as a drug?
-light, food, noise, ambient temperature as human zeitgebers
-jet lag
-"social jet lag"
-what are problems associated with shift work
-possible relation between jet lag/shift work & obesity/type II diabetes via daily rhythm of gut microbes

Class 20

-nature of sleep (highly organized, reduced physical activity, not coma, etc.)
-coma vs. vegetative state vs. minimally conscious state: how do these differ?
-how is brain death defined?
-electroencephalograph (EEG)
-brain waves: alpha, beta
-definition & characteristics of sleep
-the sleep cycle: stages, NREM, REM
-REM: components
-pontomesencephalon (reticular activating system)
-basal forebrain
-effect of antihistamine drugs in hypothalamus
-orexin (hypocretin)
-PGO waves
-sleep apnea
-narcolepsy: symptoms; cause
-periodic limb movement disorder
-REM behavior disorder
-night terror
-sleep walking
Class 21

-sleep & energy conservation
-effects of sleep deprivation
-sleep & memory storage (NREM vs REM)
-glymphatic system in brain
-sleep & toxic waste removal
-relationship between longer sleep and amount of REM
-theories of why REM (memory; stimulate nervous system of infants)
-development of dreams: complexity with aging
-activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming
-J. Alan Hobson
 -activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming
-Protoconsciousness theory of dreaming
 -Neurocognitive theory of dreaming (Domhoff)
 -clinico-anatomical hypothesis of dreaming

Module 9 Reproductive Behaviors (Chapter 10) Notes for Classes 25-26

Class 25
-X, Y chromosome
-protein & peptide hormones & second messenger effects
-steroid hormones
-"sensitive period" in pregnancy for sex difference development-Sex Region Y gene: function
-cortisol as stress hormone
-catabolic vs. anabolic steroids
-sex hormones
-androgens vs. estrogens
-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
-sexually dimorphic nucleus
-estradiol as masculinizing hypothalamus of males
-role of alpha-fetoprotein
-sex differences in childhood behavior
-effects of mother's exposure to phthalates
-activating effects of testosterone on sexual & nonsexual behaviors
-oxytocin's effects
-SSRI's side effect on male sexual performance

-organizing vs. activating effects of hormones
-periovulatory period, psychology of
-premenstrual syndrome
-are there extreme brain differences between males and females?
-mosaicism in male/female brains -Janet Shibley Hyde's gender similarities hypothesis
-effects of hormones on parenting behaviors in mammals
-precocial vs semiprecocial vs. altricial offspring
-human parent-infant caregiving pattern: rapid formation of attachment, behavioral synchrony, parent-infant bond as bsis of family, importance of culture
-human mothers: need for sensitivity & responsiveness to infant cues/signals
-barriers for mothers in caring for offspring: her experience of maternal warmth as child, affective disorders, postpartum maternal psychopathology

Class 26

- how does "evolutionary psychology" explain specific human mating behaviors (interest in multiple mates, mate selection, jealousy)
-difference between the terms sex/sexual and gender identity
-how do US adults differ in sell-identification as LGBT across different generations?
-how is intersex different from transgender identity?
-true hermaphrodite? What does this mean?
-Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH): cause & behavioral effects in girls
-Androgen insensitivity syndrome in males
-5-alpha-reductase deficiency in men: what is it?
-rearing intersex children: current emphasis on surgery only on adults (case of David Reimer)
-how are gay vs. straight men different in behavioral terms (other than sexual attraction)?
-role of genetic factors in sexual orientation: is there evidence for genetics? American vs. Swedish data.
- what sorts of theories have been proposed to explain the possible evolutionary origins of homosexuality? (kin selection, female fecundity, etc.)
-theory of maternal immune system's role: fraternal birth order effect
-homosexuality in animal species
-brain anatomy differences in sexual orientation (Simon LeVay's work)

Module 10 • Emotional Behaviors • Notes for Classes 28-29-30

Class 28 
What are the differences among the four terms: Feeling, Affect, Emotion, and Mood?

-Paul Ekman's model of emotion
-Joseph LeDoux's model of emotion 
-Lisa Feldman Barrett's Model/Theory of Constructed Emotion
-Brain as costly in metabolic processes & move to predictive coding
-emotion: components (cognition, feeling, action [tendency])
-James-Lange Theory of Emotions
-Walter B. Cannon & flight or flight
-What is the evidence for an against the notion that autonomic nervous system is necessary for (strong) emotions?
-Pure Autonomic Failure
-Panic disorder
-Facial feedback hypothesis and Wagenmaker's 2016 failure to replicate
-Does the limbic system show distinctive areas that correspond to individual emotions? [no]
-Ekman's theory of basic emotions (facial expression): how many emotions? What is the strength of his evidence for recognizing facial expression?

Jeffrey Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory
-Behavioral Approach System (BAS)
-Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)
-Fight-Flight-Freeze System (FFFS)
How does each of these brain systems affect the way human beings deal with the environment?

Brain Hemispheres & Emotion
-how do the left and right hemispheres differ when they are active in terms of overall emotions?
-how does damage to the RH and the LH result in problems with emotional identification and expression

-Barbara Fredrickson' Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions: how do positive emotions help humans?

Joshua Green
-what do we learn from PET & fMRI scans of brains facing the Trolley Car, Footbridge, Lifeboat, & Hospital dilemmas?
-brain areas show strong activity for emotional decision making
-Is Mr. Spock of StarTrek right to believe that decision-making is best as a purely logical process? (see Damasio below as well)

-Antonio Damasio
-how does brain damage to the prefrontal cortex affect decision making?
-Are emotions an enemy or help to good decision making?

Class 29

 -what evokes attack and/or escape behaviors (Threats! Danger!)?
-environmental variables associated with violence: childhood abuse, life in violent neighborhoods, lead exposure, maternal smoking
-genetic factors associated with violence: genetic x environmental interaction and MAO-A (difference between males and females, e.g., Emotional reactivity to maltreatment in females as linked to highly active MAO-A)
-role of testosterone & attack behaviors
-"Triple Imbalance Hypothesis" of high testosterone, low cortisol, low serotonin
-low serotonin turnover & aggression: what is the relationship in nonhuman animals & humans?
-escape emotions (fear, anxiety)
-amygdala: role in the emotions
-Joseph LeDoux
-past model: "high vs. low" road in perception
-newer model: amygdala as "defensive survival detection circuit and emotion ("fear") as experienced as a conscious cognitive state in working memory
-Klüver-Bucy Sydrome
-"psychic blindness" in monkeys: insensitive to threats
-Urbach-Wiethe Disease & emotion: Patient S.M.

Panic disorder: symptoms
-PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder): symptoms, causes, prevalence (< 50%), biological predisposing factors (smaller hippocampus, lower cortisol, damaged amygdala)
-Pharmacological relief (medicines) from anxiety related to benzodiazepines & GABA-A receptors
-GABA-A receptor complex & postsynaptic inhibition
-alcohol/ethanol & GABA-A receptor complex
-Relearning to erase anxiety & memory reactivation & reconsolidation via propanolol. 
How much of the material below you will be responsible for depends upon how much we cover by the end of class on Wed., Apr. 4. You will only be responsible for what we cover.

Class 30: Stress & Health

-pleasant & unpleasant stress
-Hans Seyle's theory of stress

-General Adaptation Syndrome: stages (alarm, resistance, exhaustion)
-HPA Axis
-damage to hippocampus by cortisol & disruption of negative feedback loop
-role of cortisol in short & long term stress?
-negative effects of cortisol on brain: functional (episodic memory), structural (hippocampus, decreased brain volume), and Alzheimer's disease (lower brain volume, hypometabolism, biomarker for deterioration)
-role of cytokines in brain
-effects of chronic stress on immune system
-role of severe child maltreatment on brain

This earliest version of this page was first posted March 6, 2005.