This page was last updated:
November 6, 2022

 PSY 101 Introductory Psychology

Instructor: Vincent W. Hevern, S.J., Ph.D.

 Fall 2022

Study Guide for Test #3 (Modules 7-8)
  Key Concepts & Vocabulary Key Issues Key Persons
Motivation &

Lateral hypothalamus
Ventromedial hypothalamus
Arcuate nucleus
Paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH)
Neuropeptide Y
Body mass index
Excitement phase
Plateau phase
Resolution phase
Refractory period
Parental Investment Theory
Sexual Orientation
Display Rules
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Schachter's Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
Cognitive Appraisal
Affective forecasting
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
Polygraph (lie detector)

  • Drive ("push") vs. Incentive ("pull") vs. Evolutionary theories of motivation
  • Dominance, Affiliation
  • Biological factors affecting hunger
  • Role of hormones in hunger
  • Environmental factors affecting hunger: palatability of food, quantity, variety, presence of others, stress, exposure to cues
  • Learning: inborn preferences for food types, observation of others (e.g., parents)
  • Factors related to obesity: genetic predisposition, excessive calories, inadequate exercise, inadequate sleep
  • Set point: decreased metabolism as weight is lost
  • Human Sexual Response Cycle (HSRC)
  • HSRC - Patterns of Sexual Response by Women (Masters & Johnson)
  • Evolutionary Psychology & sexual behavior differences between Ms & Fs
    • Sexual Activity
    • Mate Preference
    • Relationship Jealousy
  • Critiques of Evolutionary Theory
  • Difficulties with the homosexual-heterosexual distinction
  • Prevalence of Homosexuality
  • Homosexuality: Scientific evidence regarding psychoanalytic & behavioral theories (negative)
  • Homosexuality and early male behavior in stereotypical feminine roles (childhood gender nonconformity)
  • Genetic similarity & homosexuality
  • Anatomical differences & homosexuality
  • Fraternal Birth Order Effect
  • The elements of emotional experience
    • Cognitive (appraisal)
    • Physiological (ANS arousal)
    • Behavioral (tendency to do something)
  • Inaccuracy in affective forecasting: both intensity and length
  • Problem of false negatives and false positives with lie detector
  • Ekman & Facial Expression of Emotion
  • LeDoux's fast vs. slow pathway (amygala vs. conscious processing)
  • Fear vs. Anxiety in LeDoux
  • Cross-Cultural Similarities/Differences vis-a-vis emotion
  • Theories of Emotion
  • Evolutionary Theories of Emotion: Darwin & Modern Theorists
William Masters & Virginia Johnson
Helen Singer Kaplan
Alfred Kinsey
Robert Trivers
David Buss
Simon LeVay
Paul Ekman
Joseph LeDoux
Stanley Schachter
Robert Plutchik
Charles Darwin


"Personality" as consistency & distinctiveness
Openness to experience
Psychodynamic Theory
Pleasure Principle
Reality Principle
Perfection Principle
Oral Stage
Anal Stage
Phallic Stage
Genital stage
Self efficacy
Humanistic psychology
  • "Big Five"/Five-Factor Theory of personality (= OCEAN)
  • Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Freud's Models of the Personality
    • Levels of Awareness Model
    • Structure of the Self Model
  • Defense Mechanisms: repression, projection, intellectualization, reaction formation, sublimation
  • Psychosexual Stages of Development
  • Extraversion-Introvesion in personality
  • Positive contributions of psychodynamic theory
  • What is wrong with psychodynamic theory
  • Roger's person-centered theory: self-concept & congruence vs. incongruence
  • Unconditional positive regard
  • What is the Person-Situation Consistency controversy?
  • Humanistic psychology
  • Maslow's Hierarchy of (Human) Needs expressed as pyramid
  • Kaufman's Re-interpretation of Maslow expressed as sailboat
  • Security, Growth, Self-Actualization, Transcendence
  • What does Maslow's hierarchy imply about how we develop?
  • Narcissism: nature of this personality type, dark vs. light side of narcissism.
  • What are important characteristics of narcissism
  • What's the difference between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism
  • "Eastern" (Asian) vs. "Western" (American) Self
Robert McCrae & Paul Costa
Sigmund Freud
Carl Rogers
Walter Mischel
Abraham Maslow
Scott Barry Kaufman
Hazel Markus & Shinobu Kitayama
Intelligence Two-factor theory of Intelligence

Intelligence as "global capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his/her environment" (Wechsler)

Intelligence as  multiple abilities to cope within a particular environment or culture (Anne Anastasi)
  • the general factor ("g") of intelligence and specific abilities ("s")
  • Fluid (Gf) versus Crystallized (Gc) intelligence
  • C-H-C Theory (Cattel-Horn-Carroll Theory)
    • Three levels or "strata" to intelligence
    • Stratum 3 = "g" (general intelligence)
    • Stratum 2 = Broad abilities, e.g., Gf, Gc, memory & learning, processing speed
    • Statum 1 = Narrow abilities
  • The Binet-Simon Scale of Intelligence: mental age (MA) vs. chronological age (CA)
  • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (1916)
  • William Stern's Intelligence Quotient (IQ) = MA/CA x 100
  • Deviation IQ as where an individual falls along the 'normal curve" distribution
  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
    • Verbal vs. Performance IQ
    • New Scales (WAIS-IV, 2008) = Verbal comprehension, Perceptual reasoning, Working memory, Processing speed
  • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
Raymond Cattell & John Horn
John Carroll
Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon
Lewis Terman
David Wechsler