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October 31, 2021

 PSY 101 Introductory Psychology

Instructor: Vincent W. Hevern, S.J., Ph.D.

 Fall 2021

Study Guide for Test #3 (Modules 7-8)
   
  Key Concepts & Vocabulary Key Issues Key Persons
Motivation &
Emotion

"Motivation"
Homeostasis
Lateral hypothalamus
Ventromedial hypothalamus
Arcuate nucleus
Paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH)
Neuropeptide Y
Ghrelin
CCK
Hormones
Leptin
Insulin
Obesity
Body mass index
Excitement phase
Plateau phase
Orgasm
Resolution phase
Refractory period
Parental Investment Theory
Sexual Orientation
Display Rules
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Schachter's Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
Cognitive Appraisal
Affective forecasting
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
Polygraph (lie detector)


  • Drive ("push") vs. Incentive ("pull") vs. Evolutionary theories of motivation
  • Dominance, Affiliation
  • Biological factors affecting hunger
  • Role of hormones in hunger
  • Environmental factors affecting hunger: palatability of food, quantity, variety, presence of others, stress, exposure to cues
  • Learning: inborn preferences for food types, observation of others (e.g., parents)
  • Factors related to obesity: genetic predisposition, excessive calories, inadequate exercise, inadequate sleep
  • Set point: decreased metabolism as weight is lost
  • Human Sexual Response Cycle (HSRC)
  • HSRC - Patterns of Sexual Response by Women (Masters & Johnson)
  • Evolutionary Psychology & sexual behavior differences between Ms & Fs
    • Sexual Activity
    • Mate Preference
    • Relationship Jealousy
  • Critiques of Evolutionary Theory
  • Difficulties with the homosexual-heterosexual distinction
  • Prevalence of Homosexuality
  • Homosexuality: Scientific evidence regarding psychoanalytic & behavioral theories (negative)
  • Homosexuality and early male behavior in stereotypical feminine roles (childhood gender nonconformity)
  • Genetic similarity & homosexuality
  • Anatomical differences & homosexuality
  • Fraternal Birth Order Effect
  • The elements of emotional experience
    • Cognitive (appraisal)
    • Physiological (ANS arousal)
    • Behavioral (tendency to do something)
  • Inaccuracy in affective forecasting: both intensity and length
  • Problem of false negatives and false positives with lie detector
  • Ekman & Facial Expression of Emotion
  • LeDoux's fast vs. slow pathway (amygala vs. conscious processing)
  • Fear vs. Anxiety in LeDoux
  • Cross-Cultural Similarities/Differences vis-a-vis emotion
  • Theories of Emotion
  • Evolutionary Theories of Emotion: Darwin & Modern Theorists
William Masters & Virginia Johnson
Helen Singer Kaplan
Alfred Kinsey
Robert Trivers
David Buss
Simon LeVay
Paul Ekman
Joseph LeDoux
Stanley Schachter
Robert Plutchik
Charles Darwin


Personality

"Personality" as consistency & distinctiveness
Trait
Neuroticism
Extraversion
Introversion
Conscientiousness
Agreeableness
Openness to experience
Psychodynamic Theory
Id
Libido
Aggression
Ego
Superego
Pleasure Principle
Reality Principle
Perfection Principle
Conscious
Preconscious
Unconscious
Oral Stage
Anal Stage
Phallic Stage
Latency
Genital stage
Self efficacy
Humanistic psychology
  • "Big Five"/Five-Factor Theory of personality (= OCEAN)
  • Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Freud's Models of the Personality
    • Levels of Awareness Model
    • Structure of the Self Model
  • Defense Mechanisms: repression, projection, intellectualization, reaction formation, sublimation
  • Psychosexual Stages of Development
  • Extraversion-Introvesion in personality
  • Positive contributions of psychodynamic theory
  • What is wrong with psychodynamic theory
  • Roger's person-centered theory: self-concept & congruence vs. incongruence
  • Unconditional positive regard
  • What is the Person-Situation Consistency controversy?
  • Humanistic psychology
  • Maslow's Hierarchy of (Human) Needs expressed as pyramid
  • Kaufman's Re-interpretation of Maslow expressed as sailboat
  • Security, Growth, Self-Actualization, Transcendence
  • What does Maslow's hierarchy imply about how we develop?
  • Narcissism: nature of this personality type, dark vs. light side of narcissism.
  • What are important characteristics of narcissism
  • What's the difference between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism
  • "Eastern" (Asian) vs. "Western" (American) Self
Robert McCrae & Paul Costa
Sigmund Freud
Carl Rogers
Walter Mischel
Abraham Maslow
Scott Barry Kaufman
Hazel Markus & Shinobu Kitayama
Intelligence Two-factor theory of Intelligence

Intelligence as "global capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his/her environment" (Wechsler)

Intelligence as  multiple abilities to cope within a particular environment or culture (Anne Anastasi)
  • the general factor ("g") of intelligence and specific abilities ("s")
  • Fluid (Gf) versus Crystallized (Gc) intelligence
  • C-H-C Theory (Cattel-Horn-Carroll Theory)
    • Three levels or "strata" to intelligence
    • Stratum 3 = "g" (general intelligence)
    • Stratum 2 = Broad abilities, e.g., Gf, Gc, memory & learning, processing speed
    • Statum 1 = Narrow abilities
  • The Binet-Simon Scale of Intelligence: mental age (MA) vs. chronological age (CA)
  • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (1916)
  • William Stern's Intelligence Quotient (IQ) = MA/CA x 100
  • Deviation IQ as where an individual falls along the 'normal curve" distribution
  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
    • Verbal vs. Performance IQ
    • New Scales (WAIS-IV, 2008) = Verbal comprehension, Perceptual reasoning, Working memory, Processing speed
  • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
Raymond Cattell & John Horn
John Carroll
Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon
Lewis Terman
David Wechsler