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October 3, 2021

 PSY 101 Introductory Psychology

Instructor: Vincent W. Hevern, S.J., Ph.D.

2021 Fall

Study Guide for Test #2
   
  Key Concepts & Vocabulary Key Issues Key Persons
Research in Psychology
Ch. 2
Module 6
Scientific Theory
hypothesis
variable
Operational definition
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Experiment
Case Study
Naturalistic Observation
Survey
Experimental group
Control group
Extraneous variable
Random assignment
Correlation
Positive Correlation
Negative Correlation
Zero correlation
Spurious correlation
Placebo
Sample bias
Convenience sample
Social desirability response
Response sets in experiments
Experimenter bias
Double-blind research
  • Goals of Science: Description, Prediction, Control
  • What science means by "theory"
  • Testability: Falsification (falsifying theory)
  • Approach to Research: hypothesis, research study design, collecting data, analyzing data & drawing conclusions, reporting findings
  • What is an experiment?
  • Types of variables
  • Types of groups in experiments
  • Problems faced in doing experiments
    • Non-random assignment
  • Advantages & disadvantages of experiments
  • Meaning of correlations: strong when approaching +/- 1.0; absent when approaching 0.0
  • Cause/effect vs. linkages
  • Descriptive/correlational research: purpose
  • Types of flaws in experimental research
  • Placebo effect
  • Types of distortions in self-report data
  • Ethics: Consent as voluntary, no harm, debriefing, right to privacy

Biological Bases of Behavior
Ch. 3
Module 5
Glial cells
Neuron
Dendrite
Soma
Axon
Axonal hillock
Myelin sheath
Terminal button
synapse (synaptic cleft)
neurotransmitter
sodium-potassium pump
receptor sites
synaptic pruning
post-synaptic potential (PSP)
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
"Fight or Flight" response
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Spinal Cord
Cerebellum
Medulla
Pons
Reticular Formation
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Limbic System
Hippocampus
Amygdala
Medial Forebrain Bundle
Cerebral Cortex
Cerebral Hemispheres
Corpus callosum
Primary motor strip
Primary somatosensory strip
Primary auditory cortex
Primary visual cortex
Broca's area
Wernicke's area
Chromosome
Gene
Polygenetic determinism
Diathesis = genetic vulnerability
Epigenetics
  • Role of glial cells: structural support in brain, nourish, decontaminate, regulate neurons
  • Origin of brain tumors
  • The neuron at rest as a tiny, leaky battery
  • Resting potential
  • Action potential
  • All-or-Nothing Law
  • Role of myelin in conduction of nerve impulse
  • Excitatory vs. inhibitory postsynaptic potential
  • Roles of neurotransmitters
    • Acetylcholine (Ach)
    • Dopamine (DA)
    • Norepinepherine (NE)
    • Serotonin (5-HT)
    • GABA
    • Glutamate
    • Endorphins
  • Organization of the Nervous System: PNS, CNS
  • Neuro-imaging Techniques in the Brain
    • Computerized Tomography (CT)
    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    • Functional Magnetic Imaging (fMRI)
    • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
  • General functions of the four brain lobes
    • Frontal
      • Mirror Neurons
    • Parietal
    • Temporal
    • Occipital
  • Split brain operation: what it shows about hemispheres
  • Hemispheric Specialization
    • Left hemisphere: what it does
    • Right hemisphere: what it does
  • Strategies to research role of heredity vs. environment on behavior
    • family studies
    • twin studies (monozygotic vs. dizygotic twins)
    • adoption studies
    • concordance rate
    • genome mapping (genome wide association studies, GWAS) showing strong POLYgenetic influences
  • What did Charles Darwin claim to be the means of evolution?
    • fitness
    • natural selection
  • Modern refinements of Darwin's theory
    • adaptation
    • behaviors as adaptive traits
Walter Cannon (Fight or flight)
Paul Broca (expressive aphasia)
Carl Wernicke (receptive aphasia)
Roger Sperry (Split-brain)
Learning
Ch. 6
Module 4
Learning
Reflexes
Classical (reflex or Pavlovian) conditioning
Unconditioned stimulus (US)
Unconditioned response (UR)
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
Conditioned response (CR)
Extinction of CR
Spontaneous recovery of CR
Stimulus generalization
Stimulus discrimination
Higher order conditioning
Law of Effect
Operant conditioning
Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
Punishment
Discriminative stimuli
Generalized responses
Schedules of reinforcement
Fixed interval schedule
Fixed ratio schedule
Variable interval schedule
Variable ratio schedule
"Garcia" effect
Applied behavioral analysis
Observational Learning/Social modeling
  • What is "learning" to a psychologist?
  • Classical conditioning as a theory of "signaling"
  • Pavlov's experiments with conditioning dogs to salivate
  • Watson's experiment with Little Albert: Fear conditioning
  • Examples of classical conditioning in everyday life, e.g., fears, phobias, political advertisements
  • Skinner's theory of "operant" conditioning
  • "Skinner Box" - components
  • Positive reinforcement: examples
  • Difference between negative reinforcement & punishment
  • Advantages of variable over fixed schedules of reinforcement
  • Learning "predispositions"
  • Garcia effect as "one shot learning"
  • Mental disorders as defined by their behaviors
  • Principle of positive reinforcement over punishment
  • What did Bandura discover about the effects of adult modeling on children in his Bobo Doll experiments?
  • What did researchers in the 1990s discover about the role of violence on television?
  • Why do some more recent researchers argue that there is much less of a link between media violence and real world violence than researchers used to claim?
Ivan Pavlov
John B. Watson
Edward L. Thorndike
B. F. Skinner
John Garcia
Albert Bandura