This page was last updated:

Sept 9, 2021

 PSY 101 Introductory Psychology

Instructor: Vincent W. Hevern, S.J., Ph.D.

Fall 2021

Study Guide for Test #1
  Key Concepts & Vocabulary Key Issues Key Persons
Psychology in General
Ch. 1
Psychology as empirical
Psychology as theoretically diverse
Socio-historical context for psychology
Multiple causes for behavior (multifactorial causation)
Cultural heritage & behavior
Joint effects of heredity &
Experience of world as subjective
  • Definition of Psychology as Science & Profession
  • Focus or concerns of different perspectives in psychology: personality & clinical, social & cultural, developmental, biological
  • Principal psychological specialties: clinical, counseling, developmental, forensic, industrial-organizational, school, & social
  • What does psychology mean by a "theory"
  • What do we mean by the notion of "culture"
  • Mental Health Professionals <== Review for test

Life-Span Human

Ch. 10, pp. 323-350
Fetal stage
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Cephalocaudal development (head to foot)
Proximodistal development (middle to distant/extremities)
Maturation in development
Developmental norms & wide variations
Separation anxiety
Sensorimotor stage
Object permanence
Pre-operational stage
Egocentric vs. socialized thinking
Concrete operational stage
Formal operational stage
Identity foreclosure
Identity moratorium
Identity diffusion
Identity achievement
Emerging adulthood in late teens and early 20s (Identity exploration, sense of instability, focus on self, feeling "in between" and optimism)
  • Stages of prenatal development (germinal, embryonic, fetal)
  • Environmental risk factors to fetal development
    • Maternal malnutrition
    • Stress & emotion
    • Maternal drug usage
    • Maternal alcohol consumption
      • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
      • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)
      • No safe drinking level
    • Maternal illness (infections)
    • Environmental toxins
  • Adult diseases as arising from fetal origins
  • Temperament styles: easy, slow-to-warm-up, difficult
  • Forms of attachment (secure, anxious-ambivalent, avoidant, disorganized)
  • What did Harry Harlow find in his research with baby monkeys
  • Stage Theory: fundamental beliefs
  • Role of exposure to language (especially mother's) in language development of infants & toddlers
  • Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
    • Trust vs. mistrust
    • Autonomy vs. self-doubt
    • Initiative vs. guilt
    • Industry vs. inferiority
    • Identity vs. Role confusion
    • Generativity vs. self-absorption
    • Integrity vs. despair
  • Critique of Erikson's theory
  • Piaget's stages of cognitive development
  • Critique of Piaget's theory
  • Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD-Vygotsky)
  • Speech as first public before becoming inner speech (Vygotsky)
  • Neural development in adolescents & young adults
    • Grey matter declines
    • White matter increases
    • Prefrontal cortex matures
  • The notion of "identity status" in adolescents (James Marica)
  • The notion of "emerging adulthood" (18-29 years of age) and the qualities that individuals experience.
  • Changes in US life patterns about marriage and independent living between the middle 20th century and today
  • Changes to be expected by aging persons
  • Alzheimer's disease in old age
Stella Chess & Alexander Thomas (infant temperament)
Harry Harlow
Mary Ainsworth

Erik Erikson
Jean Piaget 
Lev Vygotsky
James Marcia
Human Memory
Ch. 7
Encoding (of memory)
Storage (of memory)
Retrieval (of memory)
Levels of Processing
Sensory Memory
Short-term Memory
Long-term Memory
Visual imagery
Flashbulb memory
Working memory
Procedural or nondeclarative memory
Declarative memory
Semantic memory
Episodic memory
Misinformation effect
Source monitoring error
Retroactive interference
Proactive interference
Ebbinghaus's Forgetting Curve
Anterograde amnesia
Retrograde amnesia
Mental time travel (Chronesthesia)
  • Levels of processing theory: structural (shallow), phonemic (intermediate), semantic (deep)
  • Atkinson & Shiffrin's Model of Memory
  • Miller's Theory of STM as 7 +/- 2 chunks of information
  • Components of Baddeley's  "working memory" model
  • How is long-term memory stored/organized?
  • What did we learn from Patient H.M.?
  • Types of memory systems: how vs. what
  • Problems of retrieval from memory
  • What is forgetting? Theories
    • Decay
    • Interference
    • Ineffective coding
    • Retrieval failure
    • "Motivated" forgetting
  • Memory as a process of construction or reconstruction and NOT simple recall of a previously recorded experience
  • Elizabeth Loftus's research showing "implanted" memories
  • What is the role of mental time travel according to Endel Tulving?
Patient H.M. (Henry Molaison)
Atkinson & Shiffrin
George A. Miller (7 +/- 2)
Elizabeth Loftus
Alan Baddeley (Working memory)
Endel Tulving (semantic vs. episodic memory)
Sigmund Freud (repression)
Hermann Ebbinghaus
Richard F. Thompson & conditioned memory in cerebellum
Eric Kandel: long-term potentiation
   This page was first posted 09/29/06 and last revised on Sept. 13, 2020