Last updated Oct 19, 2021
  PSY 101    [Psychology Images]   Class 23: Motivation III: Emotions (Outline)

Google Image Results for Emotion

The Elements of Emotional Experience

What is an "emotion"?

Yet, to be honest, psychology is still fighting over the concept of 'emotion'

A. Cognitive Component

Affective Forecasting
B. Physiological Component
Autonomic NS

Polygraph ("Lie Detectors")

Administering a polygraph

Neural Circuits

LeDoux & Amygdala Limbic system

C. Behavioral Component

Facial Feedback Hypothesis Pics

Culture and Emotion

Cross-Cultural Similarities

[6 Faces]
Are emotional expressions perceived the same way all over the world?

[Ekman Facial Research]

Paul Ekman
Paul Ekmanhappiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise as universally-recognized emotions

Lisa Feldman Barrett: rejects that there are basic, universally-recognized emotions. Cites methodological difficulties in Ekman's studies. Argues that emotions are constructed in the same way that we interpret all the other aspects of our experience (more below)

Cross-Cultural Differences

Theories of Emotions

Popular or "Commonsense"

[Emotion - Popular Notion]

William JamesJames-Lange Theory

            - James-Lange Theory]

CannonCannon-Bard Theory

            - Cannon-Bard Theory]
SchacterStanley Schachter's Two-Factor Theory

            - Schachter Theory]

Evolutionary Theories of Emotion

[Darwin & Emotions]

[Plutchik_Emotions]Modern evolutionary theories (Silvan Tomkins, Carroll Izard, & Robert Plutchik)

Theory of Constructed Emotion (TCE; not in book)

          Feldman Barrett    Barrett Theory of Emotion

For Barrett, emotion is not a feeling, but actually a conceptual category that the brain uses to explain what is going on for the individual. The brain is predicting what it is that you should be feeling now.

The Ingredients of Happiness

How Happy Are People?
            during COVID-19

What predicts subjective well-being or happiness?
Weak Predictors Moderately Strong Predictors Stronger Predictors
  • Money
  • Age
  • Parenthood
  • Intelligence & Attractiveness
  • Health
  • Social Activity
  • Religious Belief
  • Relationship Satisfaction
  • Work
  • Genetics & Personality

Who are the Extremely Happy People Across the World?   (Diener et al., 2018)
  Implications for the United States ???