Oct 14, 2021
  PSY 101    [Psychology Images]   Class 21: Motivation I Theories & Hunger as Motivated Behavior

Motivation => Goal-Directed Behavior

What is it that you want or desire?

   Motivational Theories and Concepts

Body temperature is homeostatic1. Drive Theories ("push")

  • Walter Cannon: Organisms seek to maintain homeostasis (a state of physiological equilibrium, balance, or stability). NOT IN BOOK: The process of achieving homeostasis by means of physiological or behavioral changes is called allostasis (i.e., using multiple different methods to reach equilibrium ["allo-" to achieve balance "stasis"]
  • Temperature = 98.6 degrees ==> too high leads to sweating and too low leads to shivering
  • Drive = (a) internal state of tension which (b) motivates an organism (c) to act to reduce the tension
    2. Incentive Theories ("pull")


    3. Evolutionary Theories


    4. Diversity of Motivations

     Biological Social

    Originate in bodily need

    • Hunger
    • Thirst
    • Sex
    • Sleep, etc.
    Originate in social experiences
    • Achievement (need to stand out, do well, excel)
    • Affiliation (need to belong, to be bonded with others)
    • Nurturance (need to nourish & protect others)
    • Play, etc.
    Hunger & Eating

    Homer Simpson What can we say about the causes of Homer Simpson's insatiable appetite for doughnuts? Homer with Donuts

    A very complicated set of interrelated & interacting forces & mechanisms
    appears responsible for the final experience of hunger and eating.

    The material below demonstrates the notion of multifactorial causality

    I. Biological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger

                Hypothalamus]   hypothalamus   Hypothalamus (Visible Human Female)

    A. Brain: Interconnected neural circuits in the hypothalamus

    B. Digestive & Hormonal Regulation

    II. Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger

    A. Food Availability and Related Cues

    Bread in a
          bakery     Incentive value of food

                tarantulas in CambodiaB. Learning: What foods do you adore? Despise? When did you learn to love or hate those foods?

    III. The Roots of Obesity: Eating and Weight
    BMI Chart
            of US Adults

    Why are so many people in industrialized nations obese? (more multifactorial causality)

    A. Genetic Predisposition
    Genetic loci obseity

    B. Excessive Eating and Inadequate Exercise

    Coca-Cola Sugar
    C. Inadequate Sleep
    Metabolism set pointD. The Notion of a "Set Point" in metabolism


    This page was originally posted on 10/16/03