PSY 101 Class 04 • Development 2: Cognitive Development - Piaget & Vygotsky (Outline)
Piaget: Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) - Swiss Cognitive Psychologist
- Children's reasoning for wrong answers
- Children as active explorers of environment
Seattle Sea Hawks selling beer and using lack of conservation to make a profit (2014)
Piaget's Stages in a YouTube Video (6.17)
- Underestimated child's abilities
- Mixing of stages
- Too Western, not sensitive to cultural effects?
Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) - Soviet Cognitive Psychologist
- Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development (1920s-1930s)
- Zone of Proximal Development or ZPD
- Language is the crucial element in cognitive development
- Speech is first public and social, then internalized
The Abilities of Children: Are they inborn?
- Infants seem to have an understanding of objects and their relations earlier than Piaget thought.
- Infants can add & subtract small numbers, e.g., 1+2 = 3; 3-1 = 2
- 12- & 19-month old infants appear to recognize logical inconsistencies in what they are seeing in the world (even before they can use language).
- These suggest that there is a kind of "pre-wiring" of the nervous system to deal with these basic functions.