50-year, 100-year, 150-year, etc. anniversaries appear in bold red.
See also a chemical calendar at Linz, Austria (in German) or Today in Science History by Ian Ellis.
- Hermann Emil Fischer born 1852: synthesis of sugars and their stereochemistry (Fischer projections), uric acid, caffeine, and other organic compounds; Nobel Prize, 1902
- Max von Laue born 1879: X-rays and crystal structure (Laue method); Nobel prize (Physics), 1914. View chapters in Fifty Years of X-Ray Diffraction, edited by P. P. Ewald, describing Laue's discovery and subsequent developments of it, as well as biographical information on Laue.
- Pierre-Joseph Macquer born 1718: research on arsenates and platinum. View his Dictionary of Chemistry (1766) [Volume 2 and Volume 3] or read a couple of its entries or his Elémens de chymie pratique in English.
- Peter Mansfield born 1933: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to medical imaging; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 2003.
Principal Sources: Milestones in Chemistry Calendar, Copyright © 1996, remains the principal source of information; however, I have checked (and in some cases corrected) its birth dates. Chemical and Engineering News "Top 75" (75th anniversary issue, 1/12/98) and Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists edited by John Daintith et al. (Institute of Physics, 2nd ed, 1994) are other important sources. Women in Chemistry and Physics : a Biobibliographic Sourcebook, edited by Louise S. Grinstein, Rose K. Rose, and Miriam H. Rafailovich and Notable Women in the Physical Sciences edited by Benjamin F. and Barbara S. Shearer have helped me to add several women to the calendar. The Illustrated Almanac of Science, Technology, and Invention by Raymond L. Francis is the source of several entries. Thanks to all interested readers who have suggested events for inclusion; Lucio Gelmini has been particularly helpful in this regard.
Dates are given according to the Gregorian calendar to the extent I could find them. (Note: this applies particularly to 19th-century Russians.)
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