develop their abilities to detect and defend themselves from deceptivearguments;
construct better arguments of their own.
Ching, Hill, and Kagan's working draft chapters from "Informal Logic asa Martial Art," photocopy (referred to as ILMA in assignments).
Dale Carnegie, How to Win Friends and Influence People (availablein many editions).
Suzette Haden Elgin, Genderspeak: Men, Women, and the Gentle Art ofVerbal Self-Defense, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993.
Anthony Weston, A Rulebook For Arguments, second edition, Hackett,1992.
OPTIONAL TEXTS AND READINGS (all on reserve at library or available frominstructor)
Nicholas Capaldi. The Art of Deception, second edition. Buffalo,New York: Prometheus Books, 1979 [new revised edition, 1987].
Robert B. Cialdini. Influence: The New Psychology of Modern Persuasion, revised edition. New York : Quill, 1991.
Suzette Haden Elgin. The Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense. Firstpublished in the USA by Prentice-Hall in 1980.
Darrell Huff. How to Lie with Statistics (with pictures by IrvingGeis). New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1954.
R.H. Johnson and J.A. Blair. Logical Self-Defense, second edition.Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited, 1983.
Machiavelli. The Prince and The Discourses, edited with an introductionby Max Lerner. Modern Library College Edition. New York: Random House ModernLibrary Edition, 1950 (available in many editions).
Miyamoto Musashi. A Book of Five Rings, translated by Victor Harris.Woodstock, New York: The Overlook Press, 1974.
Sun Tzu. The Art of War, edited with a forward by James Clavell.New York: Delacourte Press, 1983.
Carl Wellman. Challenge and Response: Justification in Ethics. Carbondaleand Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1971.
We will introduce and examine the techniques of informal logic as answersto the general question, "When ought one accept a given conclusion on thebasis of argument?" To do this, we will consider the classical sourcesof logic in the analysis of debates, and what is now called "informal logic."This will be the focus of the earlier lectures and the readings.
We will apply these skills to attempts at persuasion addressed to generalaudiences as well as to our own argumentative encounters.
A major focus of our study will be defense against fallacies and frequentlyused types of attack and illegitimate persuasion. We will consider thesetechniques as used in a wide variety of fields (psychology, ethics, politics,and advertising among them) as well as in our own argument experiences.Students will be required to find examples of arguments addressed to thepublic, and to relate or create examples of their own debates on issuesof their own choosing.
EVALUATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS
Attendance is expected and will be weighed into the grading. Contributionsto and participation in discussions (small group and class) are also required,and will constitute a significant part of each student's grade. Studentswill also be asked to write short in-class essays from time to time.
Midterm and final each count 12.5% of grade (25%)
In class writings and homework exercises (25%)
Final Project and its presentation counts 25% of grade (25%)
Attendance and participation (25%); each unexcused absence takes4% off this grade.
Students are expected to be familiar with the material in the lectures,discussions, and the required text. Final Projects and other assignments will be determined on the basisof each student's goals. Possibilities include the following:
A report or creation of a dialogue between the student and anotherperson containing an argument, with the student's analysis and recommendations.
Students may present and analyze an argument addressed to a generalaudience.
The final project described below.
The final project consists of a written presentation and analysis of bothsides of a debate on some controversial moral, political, religious, philosophicalor other issue (please check with the instructor). This presentation maytake a variety of forms. For example, the student may write a dialoguepresenting arguments for both sides of an issue, or comment on and analyzea series of letters to the editor or editorials on the chosen issue. Ifthe argument is presented [e.g., from the editorial page], the studentwill be obliged to show how the weaker arguments might be strengthened.If a clear loser emerges in the debate, the grade will be weighted in termsof the performance of the loser [as augmented by the student's suggestionsfor improvements in the case of a presented debate].
In coordination with the AcademicSupport Center (ASC), reasonable accommodations are provided for qualifiedstudents with disabilities. Please register with Anne Herron in the ASCOffice for disability verification and determination of reasonable accommodations.After receiving your accommodation form from the ASC, you will need tomake an appointment with me to review the form and discuss your needs.Please make every attempt to meet with me within the first week of classso your accommodations can be provided in a timely manner. You can eitherstop by the ASC, Library, 1st floor, or call (445-4118 - voice or 445-4104- TDD) to make an appointment with Ms. Herron.
TENTATIVE COURSE SCHEDULE AND ASSIGNMENTS:
No Classes or office hours on the following dates: Sep. 7 (Labor Day), Sep. 21 (Rosh HaShanah), Sep.30 (Yom Kippur), Oct. 12 - Oct. 13 (Long Weekend), and Nov. 23-27 (Thanksgiving Break). No class on Tuesday, September 15( Mass of the Holy Spirit 10:15a.m. to 11:30 a.m.)
PROJECT PROPOSALS DUE THURS., OCT. 15. MIDTERM, OCT. 20; TAKE-HOME FINAL distributed by Dec. 3; dueat time of in-class exam. WRITTEN PROJECTS DUE: THURS., NOV. 19. LAST DAY OF CLASS - December 10 FINAL EXAM IN-CLASS OPTION: Monday Dec. 14, 9-11 a.m. TAKE-HOME FINAL DUE Monday Dec. 14, at time of in-class exam.
The course is divided into 15 weekly divisions; assignments are dueas indicated:
WEEK 1 (9/1-9/4) Formal and informal logic, classical and medieval origins,the nature of dialogues, possible uses, philosophical importance. Informallogic as self-defense; basic principles. What is an Argument? What is persuasion?Non-argumentative persuasion and attacks.
WRITE AN ESSAY (DUE SEPT. 10) ON YOUR GOALS FOR THIS COURSE. Turn intwo copies so I have one available for the end of semester evaluation. Required reading: ILMA, Ch. 1. Be prepared to discuss exercises. Read Weston, Chs.. 1-6. Optional reading: Johnson and Blair (JB), "Identifying Arguments,"pp. 1-28.
WEEK 2 (of 9/8-9/10) ESSAY ON YOUR GOALS FOR THIS COURSE DUE SEPT. 8.
Goals and training. Discussion of the method of training: the distinctionbetween formal exercises, free exercises, competition, and contests withmore severe stakes. "What is an Argument?" (continued): premises, presupposition,and enthymemes; implication and inference; induction, conduction, and deduction;validity, soundness and truth; persuasion and conviction. Basic questions in evaluating arguments. Is there an argument? Whois the audience? Who the proponent? Is an attack involved? What is thefield or subject? The tactics of the Topics. Read ILMA, Ch. 2. Be prepared to discuss exercises.
No 10 a.m. class on Tuesday, September 15( Mass of the Holy Spirit 10:15 a.m. to 11:30 a.m.)
WEEK 3 (9/17) "When and how do we challenge arguments?" The basics:Is there an opponent? Knowing your opponent, knowing the field or subject,knowing yourself. Assignment: read The issue of emergencies and when notto challenge. " Optional: Sun Tzu and Musashi. Detecting and defendingagainst fallacy. What is a fallacy? Read ILMA, Ch. 3. Be prepared to discussexercises.
WEEK 4 (of 9/22) Diversionary tactics and how to reply. Ad hominem fallacies,types and tactics. Diversionary tactics continued. Fallacies of straw,guilt by association, red herring. Read ILMA, Ch. 4. Be prepared to discussexercises.
WEEK 5 (of 9/29) Disguise and deception. Read ILMA, Ch. 5, disguise anddeception. Be prepared to discuss exercises. Optional reading: Huff, Chapter8, "Post Hoc Rides Again," pp. 87-99; and Machiavelli, The Prince, ChapterXVIII, "In What Way Princes Must Keep Faith." Disguise and deception continued.Optional reading: Machiavelli, The Discourses, Chapter XL, "Deceit in theConduct of a War is Meritorious," and Chapter XLVIII, "Any Manifest Erroron the Part of an Enemy Should Make us Suspect some Stratagem."
WEEK 6 (of 10/6) Fakes and feints. Loaded terms, ambiguity, equivocation,vagueness. Read ILMA, Chapter 7, "Oldies but Goodies: Equivocation andsome other Appealing Strategies." Be prepared to discuss exercises. Bluffs and threats.
No class Oct. 13 (Long Weekend)
WEEK 7 (10/15) Fallacies in retrospect. Why do fallacies work? Assignment: Read Weston, Ch. X. "Fallacies." Optional: JB, Chapter 7, "TheCauses of Fallacious Reasoning"; and Cialdini, "Epilogue."
Other techniques of the classical rhetorician. The art of memory; thesetechniques applied to test-taking and public debate. PROJECT PROPOSALS DUE THURSDAY, OCT. 15.
WEEK 8 (of 10/20) 10/20 MIDTERM. Introductory Lectures on Carnegie andElgin. Read all of Carnegie and read Genderspeak's Appendix, "TheGentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense: An Overview."
WEEK 9 (of 10/27). Gender and informal logic as a martial art. Wing Chun,Ng Mui, Brurria. Read Genderspeak Chs. 1-2. Gender, semantics, andbody language. Read Genderspeak Chs. 3-4.
WEEK 10 (of 11/3) Elgin's basic forms, Satir modes and defusing hostility;sensory modes and enhancing communication. Read Genderspeak, Chs.5-6.
WEEK 11 ( of 11/17): Metaphors and traffic - the healthy conversation andhow it works and. Read Genderspeak Chs. 8-9. Verbal abuse and violence,the problem of sexual harassment. Read Genderspeak, Chs. 10-11.
WRITTEN PROJECTS DUE: THURSDAY., NOV. 19.
WEEK 12: (11/13) Spatio-temporal breakdowns in communication - inside andout. Bridge building. Read Genderspeak Chs. 12-14. Review Carnegie.Discussion: What do Carnegie and Elgin teach us about informal logic asself-defense? How can we practice what we have learned?
Nov. 23-27 (Thanksgiving Break).
WEEKS 13-14 (12/1-12/8). Project Presentations.
WEEK 15 (12/10). TBA as time permits: Lecture: "Socratic Dialectic."Other methods, continued. The syllogism reconsidered. Venn Diagrams.
NOTE: The following material appears on the final as extra credit. Truth functions and the Stoics. The basic vocabulary and gist of naturaldeduction systems. Final projects due. A brief introduction to modern quantification theory. Sample applicationto a peculiar argument for the existence of God (the ontological argument).
Final Exam, in-class option, Monday Dec. 14, 9-11 a.m.