Philosophy 311 |
Office Hours in RH-428 (445-4489) |

Introduction to Formal Logic |
MWF 9:30 a.m. - 10:20 a.m. |

Philosophy Seminar, Fall, 2007 |
and by appointment. |

Prof. Michael Kagan |
Email: kagan@lemoyne.edu |

__COURSE
OBJECTIVES__

The course will introduce students to some of the basic features and
techniques
of modern logic, and provide opportunities to begin development of the
ability
to analyze and criticize attempts at persuasion, using the language and
techniques of modern symbolic logic ("formal logic"). We will also
wonder about some paradoxical aspects of our studies.

__METHOD__

We will proceed through discussion and exercises originating in the lecture and reading material, homework, quizzes, and a final make-up exam.

__EVALUATIONS
AND
REQUIREMENTS__

1.
homework/participation
[50%];

2.
quizzes/optional
problems and projects [50%]

Note:
Some quizzes may not be announced. There will be a final make-up
exam for
students who have missed quizzes and for those who would like another
chance to
demonstrate what they have learned.

(Grades are based on a 10
point scale as follows:

90-100 - 'A' range (97-100 = A+; 94-96=A; 90-93=A-); 80-89 - 'B' range
(87-89 =
B+; 84-86=B; 80-83=B-);

70-79 - 'C' range (77-79 = C+; 74-76=C; 70-73=C-); 60-69 - 'D' range
(67-69 =
D+; 64-66=D; 60-63=D-).

Below 60 - 'F'. )

__Required
Texts
(Please bring both texts to class)__

Alan
Hausman, Howard Kahane, & Paul Tidman. __Logic and Philosophy__,
10^{th}
edition (Thomson Wadsworth, 2007).

Raymond M. Smullyan. __This Book Needs No Title: A Budget of Living
Paradoxes__
(Simon &
Schuster Touchstone
Book, 1986).

Optional Texts will be indicated as the course progresses.

__SPECIAL NEEDS__

In coordination with the __Academic
Support Center __(ASC),
reasonable accommodations are provided for qualified students with
disabilities. Please register with the ASC Office for disability
verification
and determination of reasonable accommodations. After receiving your
accommodation form from the ASC, you will need to make an appointment
with me
to review the form and discuss your needs. Please make every attempt to
meet
with me within the first week of class so your accommodations can be
provided
in a timely manner. You can either stop by the ASC, Library, 1st floor,
or call
(445-4118-voice or 445-4104-TDD) to make an appointment**.**

__IMPORTANT DATES:__

No classes or office hours on the following dates:
Mon., Sept. 3, Labor Day; Wed. Sep. 5, Mass of
the
Holy Spirit (classes canceled 10:30 AM - 12:30 PM; Classes resume at
1:30); Tues., Sep. 13 (Rosh Hashanah); Oct. 8-9,
Fall
Break; Nov. 21-24, Thanksgiving Break.

Last day of class: Dec. 7 (Fri.).

TENTATIVE SCHEDULE (as of 9/28/07)

#1 (Mon., Aug. 27)
Introduce course, ideas of formal methods and
representations, the problem of translation/formalization, Marlow's
warning
about new hammers, informal and presystematic considerations. Discuss
optional
problems and projects.

#2 (Fri., Aug. 31) Read the preface and first chapter of __Logic and
Philosophy__ (LP), read Smullyan, chapter I. Write a brief essay
describing
one an argument or paradox you find interesting.

**No class Mon., Sep. 3 (Labor Day) .**

**No office hours Wed, Sep. 5 (Mass of the Holy Spirit - **classes
canceled
10:30 AM - 12:30 PM; Classes resume at 1:30**.**

#3 (Fri., Sep. 7) Read LP, chapter 2. Do Exercises 2-7, odd #s 21-29; and Exercise 2-8;
odd #s
13-23.

#4 (Mon., Sep. 10). Read LP, chapter 3. Do Exercises 3-10,
odd #s
1-5. Do Exercises 3-11, odd #s 3-7. What is the
main
logical connective in the first sentence of the U.S. Declaration of
Independence? Read Smullyan's "Vignettes," pp.
139-140. Then, if you'd like, write a short essay explaining the
logic of
any one of them.

#5 (Fri., Sep. 14) Read LP, chapter 4.
Do Exercises 4-8, odd #s, and 4-14,
#7.

#8 (Mon., Sep. 17) Read LP, chapter 5. Do Exercises 5-6,
odd
#s. Do Exercises 5-7 odd #s 1-5. Short essay:
Why might
CP and IP be useful for philosophers, poets, story tellers, or
scientists?

#10 (Fri., Sep. 21) Read LP chapter 6. Express "(p --> q ) v
(q-->p)" in terms of alternation and negation . Show, by any
formal method that the conjunction consisting of p with q implies the
biconditional consisting of p with q.

#11 (Mon ,
Oct.. 1) Read
chapter 7 to then end of section 7, p.
181 Work
on odd #'s 1-5 from each of Exercises 7-1, 7-2, 7-3, 7-4 , 7-5, 7-6,
7-7.
Bring questions .

#13 ( Fri.,
Oct. 5) Finish
reading LP, ch. 7. Work on odd #'s 1-5
from
each of Exercises 7-8, 7-9, and 7-10. Bring questions.

**No class Oct. 8-9 (Mon.-Tue.), Fall Break.**

#14 (Fri., Oct. 12). Read LP, chapter
8. Do Exercises 8-2 and
8-3, #1.
Read Smullyan, Chapter 3. Symbolize (using 'Dx' for “x is a skeptic”,
'Sx' for
“x survives” ,and 'Px' for “x will be puzzled” ) i(1) “If everyone
survives
Skeptics survive” and (2) symbolize “if only skeptics survive, then
someone who
survives will be puzzled.” Read LP, chapter . 9, sections 1-4.

#16 (Mon.,
Oct. 15).
Finish reading LP, chapter . 9. Do Exercises
9-3 and
9-5, odd #s 1-5. Read LP, chapter 10, sections 1-6.

#18 (Fri.
Oct. 19)
Re-read LP, chapter 10, sections 1-6; then finish
reading
chapter 10.. Do Exercises 10-5, 10-6, and 10-7, odd #s 1-7; feel free
to use
the simpler set of rules described in section 11, if you prefer.

**#**19 (Mon.,
Oct. 22) Do
Exercises 10-10, odd #s, 1-5, and 10-11, #5.**
**#21 (Fri.,
Oct. 26) Do
Exercises 10-13, odd #s 1-5. Read LP, chapter
. 11.

#24 (Fri., Nov. 2). Do Exercises 13-3 and 13-4, odd #s 1-5.

#27(Fri. Nov. 9). Read LP, chapter . 14. Do Exercise 14-7, odd #s..

#28 Monday, November 12. Read LP, chapter . 17.

#29 (Fri. Nov 16) Read LP, chapter . 18. Read Smullyan, chapter 4. Write a brief essay using the machinery described in LP ch. 18 to explain how the astronomer's premises change after the predicted eclipse did not occur.

#30

**Please
note: The final make up exam will start at 10 A.M. Tuesday,
December 11, 2007,
in our regular classroom. The final make up exam will start at 10
A.M., not
the 9:00 A.M. time posted at the Registrar's website.**

__Some of this
page's
links:__

2. Other materials for PHL 311: http://webserver.lemoyne.edu/~kagan/311index.htm

3. Back to Kagan's Homepage: http://webserver.lemoyne.edu/~kagan/index.html

4. Academic Support Center: http://www.lemoyne.edu/academic_support_center/spneed.htm