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last updated:

October 3, 2020
  

[Brain Image]    

PSY 340 Brain and Behavior

Study Guide of Key Words, Concepts, & Persons for Modules 4, 5, & 6

   


Class 10 Structure of the Vertebrate Nervous System
-central nervous system (CNS) vs. peripheral nervous system (PNS)
-somatic nervous system (SNS): general functions
-autonomic nervous system (ANS): general functions
-sympathetic nervous system: general functions
-parasympathetic nervous system: general functions
-directions within the nervous system (NS): diagrams in notes
-sagittal, coronal & horizontal planes
-dorsal vs. ventral
-superior vs. inferior
-rostral vs. dorsal/caudal
-anterior vs. posterior
-lateral vs. medial
-proximal vs. distal
-lamina (laminae)
-column
-tract/projection
-nucleus (nuclei)
-ganglion (ganglia)
-spinal cord
-Bell-Magendie Law
-dorsal root ganglion
-gray vs white matter in spinal cord & cerebral cortex
-OTC drugs and the ANS (e.g., cold/flu tablets)
-divisions of the brain: hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain
[major or general functions of each of the structures below]
-medulla oblongata
-pons
-ascending reticular system (reticular activating system)
-Cerebellum: # of cells, movement & balance, time-related behaviors, learning & conditioning, cognition, language & affect; building models of body interacting with world
-superior colliculus
-inferior colliculus
-substantia nigra
-limbic system
-thalamus
-hypothalamus
-pituitary gland
-basal ganglia
-hippocampus
-ventricles of the brain
-cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)
-choroid plexus
-hydrocephalus

Class 11 Cerebral Cortex
-cerebral cortex
-gray/white matter
-commissures: corpus callosum & anterior commissure
-sulcus (sulci)
-Central sulcus
-Fissure
-gyrus (gyri)
-Pre & postcentral gyri, that is the motor strip and the somatosensory strip
[Location & general functions of the lobes]
-Occipital: major role
-Parietal: major role(s)
-Temporal: major role(s)
-Klüver-Bucy Syndrome: what does it tell us about the Temporal Lobe's function?
-Frontal: major role(s)
-cortical blindness
-primary visual cortex
-primary auditory cortex
-prefrontal cortex
-working memory
-behavior that depends upon contextual cues
-lobotomy/psychosurgery
-the "binding" problem



Class 12: Research Methods in Biopsychology

-Looking at the Effects of Brain Damage

-Paul Pierre Broca
-Broca's or expressive aphasia
-lesioning
-ablation
-stereotaxic instrument
-transcranial magntetic stimulation (TMS)
-Stimulate Brain Area to Analyze Resulting Behavioral Change
-optogenetics
-Recording Brain Activity during Behavior
-EEG (Electroencephalograph)
-PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scan using slightly radioactive glucose
-fMRI (Functional Magnetic Imaging) using hemoglobin as focus of magnetic field
-BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent) signal
-Default Mode Network (see column on right)

-Correlating Brain Anatomy & Behavior
-CAT (Computerized Axial Tomography) scan using low-dose x-rays
-MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scan using spin of hydrogen atoms under magnetic field

-human brains are not the largest nor have greatest mass vs. body size ratio
-moderate correlation between brain size and IQ tests
-Intelligence = abilities to cope successfully with environment (physical, interpersonal, cultural)
-Males > Females in brain size but NO IQ differences
-Male vs. Female brains do differ, but significance is not clear
Class 13: Networks of the Braiin
-Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) focusing on molecules of water under magnetic field
-flow of water as either isotrophic (in all directions) or anisotrophic (constrained to specific directions)
-Notion of the "Connectome" and difficulties mapping connections at the microscale or mesoscale levels
-Notion of Large Scale Brain Networks: both structural and functional/dynamic connections
-Default Mode Network (DMN = "Task Negative Network")
-DMN Functions: daydreaming, internally-directed thought, autobiographical reflection, decision-making about future, "mentalizing"
-DMN as developing over childhood and adolescence (not in-born)
-Salience Network: choosing what is most important to pay attention to now based on both external and internal stimuli
-Executive Control Network (aka Fronto-Parietal Network): coordinating actual behavior via sustained attention & working memory, choosing how to respond, suppressing irrelevant or erroneous responses
-"Dysexecutive Syndrome" expressed in cognitive, emotional, & behavioral symptoms/problems
-Dorsal Attention Network: "Top-down" choosing of what to pay attention to
-Ventral Attentrion Network: "Bottom-up" grabbing our attention by environmental stimuli


Chapter 4 (
Names are in RED)

Class 14: Development of the Brain
-embryology
-fetus
-neural plate
-neural tube
-stem cells
-neuron development: proliferation, migration, differentiation of neural cell precursors, myelination, synatogenesis
-can adult brain develop new neurons? Yes (olfactory receptors; hippocampus) vs. No (cerebral cortex)
-chemical pathfinding
-surplus neuron production
-chemical pathfinding by axons
-Roeger Sperry's experiment with newts
-chemical gradient
-Gerald Edelman's theory of "neural darwinism"
-nerve growth factor (NGF)
-Rita Levi-Montalcini & muscle NGF
-apoptosis
-neurotrophins
-development of nervous system: roles of chemistry vs. experience
-dendritic branching
-vulnerability during development: malnutrition, toxic chemicals, infections

-fetal alcohol syndrome
-effects of cigarette smoke on development
-Fine tuning by experience & dendritic branching
-importance of exercise
-Effects of special experiences (e.g., blindness) on cortex & its functioning
-effects of prolonged practice on cortex, e.g., by musicians
-focal hand dystonia & its cause
-adolescents & antisaccade task

Class 15: Plasticity after Brain Damage

-brain plasticity: what does this concept mean?
-stroke
-traumatic head injury: closed vs. open
-rotational forces
-coup & contrecoup
-ischemic stroke
-hemorrhagic stroke
-cell death: release of glutamate & role of Ca++ ions flooding neuron
-preventative treatment after stroke
-tissue plasminogen activator (TPA)
-cooling brain, effect of
-diaschisis
-mechanisms of recovery after brain damage: axon regrowth & collateral axon sprouts
-learned adjustments
-deafferented limb
-spinal cord damage to axons
-denervation supersensitivity
-reorganized sensory representation
-Vilayanur Ramachandran
-phantom limb phenomena & treatment