STUDY QUESTIONS 

1. What major difficulties faced the government and society of
Russia during the early reign of Nicholas II? Describe and evaluate
the efforts of ministers like Witte and Stolypin to solve these
problems. In what ways were these attempts successful? What
problems did they create? Explain.

2. The Russian Revolution of 19O5 has been called a "dress
rehearsal" for the "February" Revolution of 1917. Compare and
contrast the developments leading up to each of these revolutions
and the government's response to them. Why did the tsarist
government manage to survive the 19O5 Revolution, but fail to
survive the one in 1917? Explain.

3. Describe and discuss the foreign policies of the Russian Empire
from 1900 to 1914. What combination of circumstances, factors and
tactics led to Russian involvement in the Russo-Japanese War, and
to Russian involvement in World War I? Why did the Russians fare so
poorly in these wars? Explain.

4. What combination of circumstances, factors, policies and tactics
contributed to the failure of the Provisional Government and the
seizure of power by the Bolsheviks in 1917? Based on your reading
of Sheila Fitzpatrick's The Russian Revolution, and your own
analysis of events in 1917, why did Lenin and the Bolsheviks
succeed where the Provisional Government had failed? Explain.

5. Describe and discuss the major policies pursued by the
Bolsheviks in the first few years after their seizure of power.
What considerations and circumstances led them to implement these
policies? How and why did they manage to retain power and defeat
the forces arrayed against them during these years? Explain.