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Oct 31, 2016

 PSY 101 Introductory Psychology

Instructor: Vincent W. Hevern, S.J., Ph.D.

 Fall 2016

Study Guide for Test #2
   
  Key Concepts & Vocabulary Key Issues Key Persons
Research in Psychology
Ch. 2
Scientific Theory
hypothesis
variable
Operational definition
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Experiment
Case Study
Naturalistic Observation
Survey
Experimental group
Control group
Confounding variable
Random assignment
Correlation
Positive Correlation
Negative Correlation
Zero correlation
Placebo
Sample bias
Convenience sample
Social desireabilty response
Response sets in experiments
Experimenter bias
Double-blind research
  • Goals of Science: Description, Prediction, Control
  • What science means by "theory"
  • Testability: Falsification (falsifying theory)
  • Approach to Research: hypothesis, research study design, collecting data, analyzing data & drawing conclusions, reporting findings
  • What is an experiment?
  • Types of variables
  • Types of groups in experiments
  • Problems faced in doing experiments
    • Extraneous variables
    • Confounding variables
    • Non-random assignment
  • Advantages & disadvantages of experiments
  • Meaning of correlations: strong when approaching +/- 1.0; absent when approaching 0.0
  • Cause/effect vs. linkages
  • Descriptive/correlational research: purpose
  • Types of flaws in experimental research
  • Placebo effect
  • Types of distortions in self-report data

Motivation &
Emotion

Ch. 9, pp. 289-302, 304-317

Ch. 10 352-355
"Motivation"
Homeostasis
Lateral hypothalamus
Ventromedial hypothalamus
Arcuate nucleus

Paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH)
Neuropeptide Y
Glucose
Glucostatic Theory
Ghrelin
CCK
Hormones
Leptin
Insulin
Excitement phase
Plateau phase
Orgasm
Resolution phase
Refractory period
Parental Investment Theory
Sexual Orientation
Display Rules
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Schachter's Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
Cognitive Appraisal
Affective forecasting
Facial Feedback Hypothesis


  • Drive ("push") vs. Incentive ("pull") vs. Evolutionary theories of motivation
  • Dominance, Affiliation
  • Biological factors affecting hunger
  • Role of hormones in hunger
  • Environmental factors affecting hunger
  • Human Sexual Response Cycle (HSRC)
  • HSRC - Patterns of Sexual Response by Women (Masters & Johnson)
  • Evolutionary Psychology & sexual behavior differences between Ms & Fs
    • Sexual Activity
    • Mate Preference
    • Relationship Jealousy
  • Critiques of Evolutionary Theory
  • Difficulties with the homosexual-heterosexual distinction
  • Prevalence of Homosexuality
  • Homosexuality: Scientific evidence regarding psychoanalytic & behavioral theories
  • Homosexuality and early male behavior in stereotypical feminine roles
  • Genetic similarity & homosexuality
  • Anatomical differences & homosexuality
  • Fraternal Birth Order Effect
  • The elements of emotional experience
    • Cognitive (appraisal)
    • Physiological (ANS arousal)
    • Behavioral (tendency to do something)
  • Ekman & Facial Expression of Emotion
  • Cross-Cultural Similarities/Differences vis-a-vis emotion
  • Theories of Emotion
  • Evolutionary Theories of Emotion: Darwin & Modern Theorists
William Masters & Virginia Johnson
Helen Singer Kaplan
Alfred Kinsey
Robert Trivers
David Buss
Simon LeVay
Paul Ekman
Stanley Schachter
Robert Plutchik
Charles Darwin


Life-Span Human
Development

Ch. 10, pp. 323-350
Embryonic stage
Fetal stage
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Cephalocaudal development
Poximodistal development
Maturation in development
Developmental norms
Temperament
Attachment
Separation anxiety
"Stage"
Identity
Operations
Sensorimotor stage
Object permanence
Preoperational stage
Egocentric vs. socialized thinking
Decentration
Concrete operational stage
Reversability
Conservation
Formal operational stage
Pubescence
Puberty
Primary sexual characteristics
Secondary sexual characteristics
Identity foreclosure
Identity moratorium
Identity diffusion
Identity achievement
  • Stages of prenatal development (germinal, embryonic, fetal)
  • Environmental risk factors to fetal development
    • Maternal malnutrition
    • Stress & emotion
    • Maternal drug usage
    • Maternal alcohol consumption
    • Maternal illness (infections)
    • Environmental toxins
  • Adult diseases as arising from fetal origins
  • Temperament styles
  • Forms of attachment (secure, anxious-ambivalent, avoidant)
  • What did Harry Harlow find in his research with baby monkeys
  • Stage Theory: fundamental beliefs
  • Role of exposure to language (especially mother's) in language development of infants & toddlers
  • Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
    • Trust vs. mistrust
    • Autonomy vs. self-doubt
    • Initative vs. guilt
    • Industry vs. inferiority
    • Identity vs. Role confusion
    • Generativity vs. self-absorption
    • Integrity vs. despair
  • Critique of Erikson's theory
  • Piaget's stages of cognitive development
  • Critique of Piaget's theory
  • Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky)
  • Speech as first public before becoming inner speech (Vygotsky)
  • Neural development in adolescents & young adults
    • Grey matter declines
    • White matter
    • Prefrontal cortex matures
  • The notion of "Identity status" in adolescents (James Marica)
  • Changes to be expected by aging persons
Stella Chess & Alexander Thomas
Harry Harlow
Mary Ainsworth

Erik Erikson
Jean Piaget 
Lev Vygotsky
James Marcia
Personality
Ch. 11, pp. 361-388
"Personality" as consistency & distinctiveness
Trait
Neuroticism
Extroversion
Introversion
Conscientiousness
Agreeableness
Psychodynamic
Id
Libido
Aggression
Ego
Superego
Pleasure Principle
Reality Principle
Perfection Principle
Conscious
Preconscious
Unconscious
Oral Stage
Anal Stage
Phallic Stage
Latency
Genital Stage
  • "Big Five"/Five-Factor Theory of personality (= NEOAC)
  • Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Freud's Models of the Personality
    • Levels of Awareness Model
    • Structure of the Self Model
  • Psychosexual Stages of Development
  • Oedipal Crisis for Males/Females
  • Extraversion-Introvesion in personality
  • Positive contributions of psychodynamic theory
  • What is wrong with psychodynamic theory
  • What is the Person-Situation Consistency controversy?
  • Maslow's Hierarchy of (Human) Needs
  • What does Maslow's hierarchy imply about how we develop?
  • "Eastern" (Asian) vs. "Western" (American) Self
  • Terror Management Theory as an example of a genetic theory of personality 
    • Implications of this theory for current social behavior
Robert McCrae & Paul Costa
Sigmund Freud
Walter Mischel
Abraham Maslow
Hazel Markus & Shinobu Kitayama