[home]

This page was last updated:
  
11/01/08

 PSY 101 Introductory Psychology

Instructor: Vincent W. Hevern, S.J., Ph.D.

 Fall 2008

Study Guide for Test #2
   
  Key Concepts & Vocabulary Key Issues Key Persons
Learning
Ch. 6
Learning
Reflexes
Classical (reflex or Pavlovian) conditioning
Unconditioned stimulus (US)
Unconditoned response (UR)
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
Conditioned response (CR)
Extinction of CR
Spontaneous recovery of CR
Stimulus generalization
Stimulus discrimination
Higher order conditioning
Law of Effect (Instrumental Conditioning)
Operant conditioning
Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
Punishment
Discriminative stimuli
Generalized responses
Schedules of reinforcement
Fixed interval schedule
Fixed ratio schedule
Variable interval schedule
Variable ratio schedule
"Garcia" effect
Applied behavioral analysis
Observational Learning/Social modeling



  • What is "learning" to a psychologist?
  • What are examples of reflexes in humans?
  • Classical conditioning as a theory of "signaling"
  • Pavlov's experiments with conditioning dogs to salivate
  • Watson's experiment with Little Albert: Fear conditioning
  • Examples of classical conditioning in everyday life, e.g., fears, phobias, political advertisements
  • Skinner's theory of "operant" conditioning
  • "Skinner Box" - components
  • Positive reinforcement: examples
  • Difference between negative reinforcement & punishment
  • Advantages of variable over fixed schedules of reinforcement
  • Learning "predispositions"
  • Garcia effect as "one shot learning"
  • Mental disorders as defined by their behaviors
  • Token economy
  • Principle of positive reinforcement over punishment
  • What did Bandura discover about the effects of adult modeling on children in his Bobo doll experiments?
Ivan Pavlov
John B. Watson
Edward L. Thorndike
B. F. Skinner
John Garcia
Albert Bandura

Motivation &
Emotion

Ch. 10, pp. 294-326
 
"Motivation"
Homeostasis
Lateral hypothalamus
Ventromedial hypothalamus
Paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH)
Neuropeptide Y
Glucose
Glucostatic Theory
Hormones
Leptin
Insulin
Excitement phase
Plateau phase
Orgasm
Resolution phase
Refractory period
Parental Investment Theory
Sexual Orientation
Display Rules
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Schachter's Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
Cognitive Appraisal
  • Drive ("push") vs. Incentive ("pull") vs. Evolutionary theories of motivation
  • Dominance, Affiliation
  • Biological factors affecting hunger
  • Effects of PVH neurotransmitter injections
  • Role of hormones in hunger
  • Environmental factors affecting hunger
  • Human Sexual Response Cycle (HSRC)
  • HSRC - Patterns of Sexual Response by Women (Masters & Johnson)
  • Evolutionary Psychology & sexual behavior differences between Ms & Fs
    • Sexual Activity
    • Mate Preference
    • Relationship Jealousy
  • Critiques of Evolutionary Theory
  • Difficulties with the homosexual-heterosexual distinction
  • Prevalence of Homosexuality
  • Homosexuality: Scientific evidence regarding psychoanalytic & behavioral theories
  • Homosexuality and early male behavior in stereotypical feminine roles
  • Genetic similarity & homosexuality
  • Anatomical differences & homosexuality
  • The elements of emotional experience
    • Cognitive (appraisal)
    • Physiological (ANS arousal)
    • Behavioral (tendency to do something)
  • Ekman & Facial Expression of Emotion
  • Cross-Cultural Similarities/Differences vis-a-vis emotion
  • Theories of Emotion
  • Evolutionary Theories of Emotion: Darwin & Modern Theorists
William Masters & Virginia Johnson
Helen Singer Kaplan
Alfred Kinsey
Robert Trivers
David Buss
Simon LeVay
Paul Ekman
Stanley Schachter
Robert Plutchik
Charles Darwin


Life-Span Human
Development

Ch. 11, pp. 326-357
Embryonic stage
Fetal stage
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Cephalocaudal development
Poximodistal development
Maturation in development
Developmental norms
Temperament
Attachment
"Stage"
Identity
Operations
Sensorimotor stage
Object permanence
Preoperational stage
Egocentric vs. socialized thinking
Decentration
Concrete operational stage
Reversability
Conservation
Formal operational stage
Pubescence
Puberty
Primary sexual characteristics
Secondary sexual characteristics
Identity foreclosure
Identity moratorium
Identity diffusion
Identity achievement
  • Stages of prenatal development (germinal, embryonic, fetal)
  • Environmental risk factors to fetal development
  • Temperment styles
  • Forms of attachment (secure, anxious-ambivalent, avoidant)
  • Stage Theory: fundamental beliefs
  • Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
  • Critique of Erikson's theory
  • Piaget's stages of cognitive development
  • Critique of Piaget's theory
  • Adolescence as stormy/peaceful stage
  • The notion of "Identity status"
Stella Chess & Alexander Thomas
Mary Ainsworth
Erik Erikson
Jean Piaget 
Lev Vygotsky
James Marcia
Personality
Ch. 12, pp. 371-385
"Personality" (consistency, distinctiveness)
Neuroticism
Extroversion
Introversion
Conscientiousness
Agreeableness
Psychodynamic
Id
Libido
Aggression
Ego
Superego
Pleasure Principle
Reality Principle
Perfection Principle
Conscious
Preconscious
Unconscious
Oral Stage
Anal Stage
Phallic Stage
Latency
Genital Stage
  • "Big Five"/Five-Factor Theory of personality
  • Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Freud's Models of the Personality
    • Levels of Awareness Model
    • Structure of the Self Model
  • Psychosexual Stages of Development
  • Oedipal Crisis for Males/Females
  • Extraversion-Introvesion in personality
  • Positive contributions of psychodynamic theory
  • What is wrong with psychodynamic theory
  • What is the Person-Situation Consistency controvery?
  • Maslow's Hierarchy of (Human) Needs
  • What does Maslow's hierarchy imply about how we develop?
  • "Eastern" (Asian) vs. "Western" (American) Self
  • Terror Management Theory as an example of a genetic theory of personality 
    • Implications of this theory for current social behavior
Robert McCrae & Paul Costa
Sigmund Freud
Walter Mischel
Abraham Maslow
Hazel Markus & Shinobu Kitayama