This page was last updated:
February 21, 2018

 PSY 101 Introductory Psychology

Instructor: Vincent W. Hevern, S.J., Ph.D.

 Spring 2018

Study Guide for Test #1
  Key Concepts & Vocabulary Key Issues Key Persons
Psychology in General
Ch. 1
Psychology as empirical
Psychology as theoretically diverse
Sociohistorical context for psychology
Multiple causes for behavior
Cultural heritage & behavior
Joint effects of heredity &
Experience of world as subjective
  • Definition of Psychology as Science & Profession
  • Principal psychological specialties: clinical, counseling, & others
  • Most important trends in the last 50 to 60 years
    • Rise of clinical psychology following World War II
    • Concern for how we think (cognitive psychology) and the relationship between brain & behavior (physiological psychology)
    • Concern for psychology of culturally-diverse, non-Western world versus psychology of WEIRD people (living in Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic nations)
    • Emergence of evolutionary psychology
    • Positive psychology
  • Why do many psychologists claim that it is a myth that "students learn best when teaching styles are matched to learning styles"?
  • What kind of data and questions about claims like "learning styles" do psychologists ask?
Watson & Crick (Discoverers of the shape of the DNA molecule)
Edward O. Wilson (sociobiology/evolutionary
Biological Bases of Behavior
Ch. 3
Glial cells
Axonal hillock
Myelin sheath
Terminal button
synapse (synaptic cleft)
sodium-potassium pump
receptor sites
synaptic pruning
post-synaptic potential (PSP)
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
"Fight or Flight" response
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Spinal Cord
Reticular Formation
Limbic System
Medial Forebrain Bundle
Cerebral Cortex
Cerebral Hemispheres
Corpus callosum
Primary motor strip
Primary somatosensory strip
Primary auditory cortex
Primary visual cortex
Broca's area
Wernicke's area
Polygenetic determinism
Diathesis = genetic vulnerability
  • Role of glial cells: structural support in brain, nourish, decontaminate, regulate neurons
  • Origin of brain tumors
  • The neuron at rest as a tiny, leaky battery
  • Resting potential
  • Action potential
  • All-or-Nothing Law
  • Role of myelin in conduction of nerve impulse
  • Excitatory vs. inhibitory postsynaptic potential
  • Roles of neurotransmitters
    • Acetylcholine (Ach)
    • Dopamine (DA)
    • Norepinepherine (NE)
    • Serotonin (5-HT)
    • GABA
    • Glutamate
    • Endorphins
  • Organization of the Nervous System: PNS, CNS
  • Neuro-imaging Techniques in the Brain
    • Computerized Tomography (CT)
    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    • Functional Magnetic Imaging (fMRI)
    • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
  • General functions of the four brain lobes
    • Frontal
      • Mirror Neurons
    • Parietal
    • Temporal
    • Occipital
  • Split brain operation: what it shows about hemispheres
  • Hemispheric Specialization
    • Left hemisphere: what it does
    • Right hemisphere: what it does
  • Strategies to research role of heredity vs. environment on behavior
    • family studies
    • twin studies (monozygotic vs. dizygotic twins)
    • adoption studies
    • concordance rate
    • genome mapping (genome wide association studies, GWAS) showing strong POLYgenetic influences
  • What did Charles Darwin claim to be the means of evolution?
    • fitness
    • natural selection
  • Modern refinements of Darwin's theory
    • adaptation
    • behaviors as adaptive traits
Walter Cannon (Fight or flight)
Paul Broca (expressive aphasia)
Carl Wernicke (receptive aphasia)
Roger Sperry (Split-brain)
Ch. 6
Classical (reflex or Pavlovian) conditioning
Unconditioned stimulus (US)
Unconditioned response (UR)
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
Conditioned response (CR)
Extinction of CR
Spontaneous recovery of CR
Stimulus generalization
Stimulus discrimination
Higher order conditioning
Law of Effect
Operant conditioning
Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
Discriminative stimuli
Generalized responses
Schedules of reinforcement
Fixed interval schedule
Fixed ratio schedule
Variable interval schedule
Variable ratio schedule
"Garcia" effect
Applied behavioral analysis
Observational Learning/Social modeling
  • What is "learning" to a psychologist?
  • What are examples of reflexes in humans?
  • Classical conditioning as a theory of "signaling"
  • Pavlov's experiments with conditioning dogs to salivate
  • Watson's experiment with Little Albert: Fear conditioning
  • Examples of classical conditioning in everyday life, e.g., fears, phobias, political advertisements
  • Skinner's theory of "operant" conditioning
  • "Skinner Box" - components
  • Positive reinforcement: examples
  • Difference between negative reinforcement & punishment
  • Advantages of variable over fixed schedules of reinforcement
  • Learning "predispositions"
  • Garcia effect as "one shot learning"
  • Mental disorders as defined by their behaviors
  • Principle of positive reinforcement over punishment
  • What did Bandura discover about the effects of adult modeling on children in his Bobo doll experiments?
  • What did researchers in the 1990s discover about the role of violence on television?
  • Why do some more recent researchers argue that there is much less of a link between media violence and real world violence than researchers used to claim?
  • What is the role of guns in the ways in which violence takes place in the United States recently?
Ivan Pavlov
John B. Watson
Edward L. Thorndike
B. F. Skinner
John Garcia
Albert Bandura

Human Memory
Ch. 7
Encoding (of memory)
Storage (of memory)
Retrieval (of memory)
Levels of Processing
Sensory Memory
Short-term Memory
Long-term Memory
Visual imagery
Flashbulb memory
Working memory
Procedural memory
Declarative memory
Semantic memory
Episodic memory
Misinformation effect
Source monitoring error
Retroactive interference
Proactive interference
Ebbinghaus's Forgetting Curve
Anterograde amnesia
Retrograde amnesia
Mental time travel (Chronesthesia)
  • Levels of processing theory: structural (shallow), phonemic (intermediate), semantic (deep)
  • Atkinson & Shiffrin's Model of Memory
  • Miller's Theory of STM as 7 +/- 2 chunks of information
  • Components of Baddeley's  "working memory" model
  • How is long-term memory stored/organized?
  • What did we learn from Patient H.M.?
  • Types of memory systems
  • Problems of retrieval from memory
  • What is forgetting? Theories
    • Decay
    • Interference
    • Ineffective coding
    • Retrieval failure
    • "Motivated" forgetting
  • Memory as a process of reconstruction and NOT simple recall of a previously recorded experience
  • What is the "repressed memory controversy"?
  • Why do many academic research psychologists argue that repressed memories are not real (but "believed in" imaginings)?
  • What is the role of mental time travel according to Endel Tulving?
Patient H.M. (Henry Molaison)
Atkinson & Shiffrin
George A. Miller (7 +/- 2)
Elizabeth Loftus
Alan Baddeley (Working memory)
Endel Tulving (semantic vs. episodic memory)
Sigmund Freud (repression)
Hermann Ebbinghaus
   This page was first posted 09/29/06 and last revised on 2/21/2018