| PSY 101
Variations in Consciousness II: Dreams
and Hypnosis (Outline)
C. Sleeping (cont'd)
Why do we sleep? We don't know, but.... [Not in book]
1. Energy Conservation & Body Healing
2. Memory Consolidation !!!!
3. Toxic Waste Removal (New)
- Glymphatic system
- Rats die in 2-3 weeks if totally deprived of sleep
- "Fatal Familial Insomnia"
The Phenomenon of Dreaming
- REM vs. Non-REM
- Cultural differences: West vs. East
Content of Dreams (Domhoff, 2001)
- Few changes over 20th century
- Repetition Principle
- Stable cross-cultural similarities & differences
- Males, Females
- Continuity Principle
Explanations: Why Do We Dream?
Freud Cartwright Hobson Domhoff
Wish Fulfillment (Sigmund Freud)
Activation-Synthesis (Hobson)No Adaptive Function, but still Meaningful (Domhoff)
Franz Anton Mesmer & Mesmerism
- Franz Mesmer (Vienna, student in Jesuit College)
- "animal magnetism"
- the power of suggestion (also called "the placebo effect").
- James Braid coined the term hypnotism to identify the trance-like state induced in subjects by later followers of Mesmer, the "mesmerists".
What is hypnosis?
Hypnosis is defined by the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis as
"a state of inner absorption, concentration and focused attention."
- Anesthesia (pain relief)
- Sensory distortion & hallucinations
- Disinhibition (see below Myth #1)
- Posthypnotic Suggestion & Amnesia (see below Myth #2)
- Myth #1: Fear that hypnosis will cause a loss of control or a surrender of will to the hypnotist
- Myth #2: Fear that hypnosis will cause a loss of memory or amnesia for what happened during hypnosis. This is true for only a small percentage of subjects and, usually, only if suggested by hypnotist.
What explains hypnosis?
Two rival theories continue to dominate the debate
Role Playing (Nick Spanos, Ted Sarbin) = minority view
Altered State of Consciousness (Ernest "Jack" Hilgard, Martin Orne) = majority view
This page was originally posted on 11/14/03 and last updated on November 24, 2016