Need for Achievement (nAch)
Achievement Motivation: Need to excel, master challenges, outperform others, reach high levels of excellence
Research by David McClleland (on right)
Method: Responses to the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; a projective test)
For example, look at the picture below and tell me what is happening now, what happened earlier, and what will happen afterwards.
Credit: Western History/Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library
The Elements of Emotional Experience When you experience an "emotion" (joy, rage, pride, etc.) what happens to you?
1. Cognitive: Subjective Feelings
- Cognitive appraisal of situation: How people evaluate what is happening to themselves can evoke different emotions, e.g., being asked to make a report to your company's board of directors might make one person fearful and another person energized to make an impression.
- Arousal of the Autononomic NS
- Sympathetic NS <-- aroused by many emotions ("fight or flight")
- Parasympathetic NS <-- leads to relaxation & restoration
- Galvanic skin response (GSR)
- Polygraphs (Lie Detectors)
- Neural Circulits in the Brain
- Limbic System, especially the amygdala
- Fast vs. slow pathways
Paul Ekman @ APA
(Photo © 2004 V. Hevern)
3. Behavioral Components: Nonverbal Expression
- Facial Expression of Emotion
- Research by Paul Ekman
- Ease in identifying happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, and disgust
- "Facial-Feedback Hypothesis"
Go to Notes on Emotions
This page was originally posted on 10/20/03 and last updated on 10/19/04 Photo of lie detector: Courtesy of the Special Collections Department, University of Iowa Libraries