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Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
Technological advantage
World-wide knowledge
Increased education of labor force everywhere
More capital per worker
Increased mobility of capital
Ability to control companies at a distance
Unique product market
Growing internationalization of cultures
Increased knowledge of what is available elsewhere
Increases in trade
Increases in capital flows
Pressure on industrial-relations institutions
How can unions deal with this phenomenon?
How can our laws be enforced here when others don’t need to comply?
Internationalization of HR institutions
Can recruit world-wide
Examples of other industries
Computer servicing
Accounting and bookkeeping
Travel agencies
Implications for unions?
January 2004 the leading banking union in Britain announce it would launch a membership drive among bank call center staff in India employed by British banks
Implications for governments and government policies
October 2004, the European Union submitted proposals to modify the EU “Working Time Directive” to increase monitoring of work time, to impose a “hard cap” of 65 hours per week, and to require that industries that “opt out” of the 48-hour week in particular nations have agreement of unions.  Also that employee “opt out” consent may not be given at time of contract signing.