Groups centering on workers themselves
Variety of economic, social and political
factors influence this choice
Britain and US labor tended to follow
middle-class reformers where European
labor tended to follow intellectuals
Labor can follow any of three elite groups which disagree over the nature of society.
This is closely related to the decision to emphasize economic or political actions.
Middle-class reformers – often arise when the economic advances of this class are not matched by its political advances
Intellectuals – often protest at what they see as the inequitable distribution of the burdens and benefits of industrialization