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Industrialization Approach‑ It is the industrialization process and the way it is achieved which shapes the industrial‑relations system Technology of Industrialization requires dynamic elites for its introduction and extension into society
Unions then are response organizations.  They respond to the nature and path of industrialization
General v. Specific
General (applies to any society at any time) v. Specific (applies to the current economic epoch and only to societies that are industrializing)
Where does Dunlop focus attention?
on the components
his purpose is to define a discipline
Where do KDHM focus attention
on the industrialization pattern
purpose is to explain differences among systems
Economic v. political action – choice of which to emphasize is crucial for labor
Labor can follow any of three elite groups which disagree over the nature of society.  This is closely related to the decision to emphasize economic or political actions.
Middle-class reformers – often arise when the economic advances of this class are not matched by its political advances
Intellectuals – often protest at what they see as the inequitable distribution of the burdens and benefits of industrialization
Different emphasis on political or economic goals will necessitate different structures
Political – mass movement with centralized control
Economic – decentralized movement of workers hard to replace and able to take advantage of circumstances of individual employers
Distribution of power in society
degree of democracy
influence of labor and management
Technological environment
Degree of industrialization
Degree of post-industrialization
Distribution of industries
Economic environment
Rate of Economic growth
Performance of major economic indicators – unemployment, inflation, balance of payments
Level of real income
Structure of movement
Extent of movement
Central organization
Political role
How organized
Extent of involvement
Nature of involvement
Direct v. Delegated Involvement
Procedures for making rules
bargaining, arbitration, self-management, etc.
use of pressure
public v. private sectors
Rules – terms and conditions
scope of rules
uniformity of rules
Administration and interpretation of the rules
nature of private procedures
nature of public procedures