IRL201 - History of American Labor and Management

Cliff Donn

Spring 2008

Office RH416, Ext.4484

TOPICS: The basic subject matter of the course involves the history of the workplace, workers and labor unions in the United States, from the colonial period to the present. The emphasis will be on trends and recurring themes rather than on familiarity with numerous names and dates.

SOURCES: The text for the course will be and Eileen Boris and Nelson Lichtenstein, Major Problems in the History of American Workers. In addition, you will be reading a number of articles from journals and other books which are on reserve at the library. In particular, there will be assignments from the journal Labor History.

REQUIREMENTS: All students will take a comprehensive final examination at Thursday, May 8 , at 3:00 p.m.. In addition there will be six quizzes on the reading material and one mid-term examination. The dates for all of these are listed on the schedule below. The quizzes will each take fifteen minutes while the mid-term examination will take fifty minutes. There will be no make-up quizzes or exams. If you miss a quiz or the mid-term exam, you can make up that material on the final exam (although everyone must take at least two quizzes). You may also use the final exam to replace the grades on any of the quizzes and/or the mid-term if you are unhappy with your grade. However, if you do the part of the final exam which replaces a quiz or the mid-term, you will receive whatever grade you receive on the final, whether it is higher or lower. On the other hand, if you are content with your grades on the quizzes and the mid-term, then you can skip entirely the parts of the final that would replace these.

Students will each write at least one essay. Those who choose may write a second essay. See the separate handout on essay writing and the essay rubric on the home page. The quizzes will each count 5% of your grade. The mid-term examination will count 25% of your final grade and the essays will count 15% each. The final examination will exam will count for the rest but it will count for more if you have missed the mid-term or any of the quizzes. In summary, everyone must take at least two quizzes, write at least one essay and take the final examination. If you do so, your final exam will count 75% of your grade (more if you try to improve your grade on the quiz and/or the mid-term). If, on the other hand, you do all six quizzes, the mid-term exam, and two essays, then the final exam can count as little as 15% of your final grade. The choice is up to you.

You must complete all assigned work in order to receive a passing grade in the course. Finally, regular class attendance and participation in class discussion are expected. Students who attend class and are prepared for discussion on a daily basis can expect these facts to be reflected in their grades. The inverse is also true. You should not take this class unless you expect to attend every day. Students with an excessive number of absences for any reason will be dropped from the class and more than one absence will have a negative effect on your grade.

Cell phones must be turned off during class (not set to vibrate). Students are not allowed to leave class to receive or make phone calls. If you anticipate an emergency telephone call on some particular day that necessitates your leaving your phone on, tell the instructor before class begins.

If you have a documented disability and wish to discuss academic accommodations, please contact me during the first week of class.

CLASS SCHEDULE Please use this schedule to plan your reading which should be done before the relevant class.




Jan 23



A. Colonial Period and Revolution

Jan 25, 28


B. Development of the Factory System

Jan 30, Feb 1

C. Free and Unfree Labor

Feb 4,6

D. Civil War and Reconstruction

Feb 8,11

E. The Gilded Age

Feb 13,15,18,20

F. The Progressive Era and World War I

Feb 22,25,27,29

G. The 1920s and the Great Depression

Mar 10,12,14,17

H. World War II and the Post-war Period

Mar 26,28,31

I. The 1960s

Apr 2,4

J. The 1970s and 80s

Apr 7,9

K. Contemporary Issues

Apr 11,14



A. Union Organization, Employers, and the Law

Apr 16

B. Structure and Size of the American Labor Movement

Apr 18, 21

C. Unions and the Underprivileged

Apr 23, 25

D. Union Political Activities

Apr 28,30 May 2


May 5




Quiz 1

Feb 1

Quiz 2

Feb 11

Essay 1

Feb 15

Quiz 3

Feb 29

Essay 2

Mar 12


Mar 19

Essay 3

Mar 28

Quiz 4

Mar 31

Quiz 5

Apr 14

Essay 4

Apr 21

Quiz 6

May 5

Final Examination

Wednesday, May 7, 3:00 p.m.-5:30 p.m.


WHAT I EXPECT FROM YOU: I expect that you will come to class each day on time, having done the reading assignment and prepared to participate by asking and answering questions and by expressing your opinions. I expect that you will ask questions about anything you don't understand. I expect that essays will be done and turned in on time and that they will reflect the best work you can do. I expect that you will contact me if you are having any problems in the course or if you are having personal problems which may affect your performance in the course. Overall, I expect you to work hard at getting the most out of this course that you possibly can. In accordance with the policies of the New York State Department of Education which accredits Le Moyne College, you can expect to be assigned two to three hours of outside work for each hour of class time in the course.  You should not take this course unless you are willing to spend that much time outside of class working on course material.

WHAT YOU CAN EXPECT FROM ME: You can expect that I shall come to class on time each day having thought about and prepared the material. You can expect that I shall answer your questions to the best of my ability and that your opinions will be heard with respect. You can expect that your papers and exams will be graded carefully and returned in a timely manner and that you will be given an explanation of why you receive the grades you receive. You can expect that I shall make time to see you if you need to see me and that I shall keep regular office hours.

WHAT WE SHOULD EXPECT FROM EACH OTHER: A serious commitment to learning and a serious effort toward that end.

EXPECTED OUTCOMES: The successful student will be familiar with history of working life in the United States as well as with the origins and evolution of trade unions and the law with regard to employment and labor relations.  Students should be able to identify the historical antecedents of current labor issues and to read and analyze critically media reports on union behavior and policies.


I. Introduction

  • Ehrenreich, "Working Poor Blues," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Arenesen, "Encyclopedia of U.S. Labor and Working Class History" (this is a general reference that will be useful to you throughout the semester).


  • Swados, "The Myth of the Happy Worker," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Montgomery "To Study the People: The American Working Class." Labor History, V.21, N.4
  • Ozanne "Trends in American Labor History." Labor History, V.21, N.4

II. A. The Colonial Period and the American Revolution

  • "An Indentured Servant Writes Home, 1623," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Traveler Peter Kalm on Unfree Labor in Pennsylvania, 1753," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "African Prince Olaudah Equiano Survives the Middle Passage, 1791," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Ruth Belknap, a Country Parson's Wife, on 'The Pleasures of a Country Life,' c. 1782," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Dunn, "Servants and Slaves in the East," in Boris and Lichtenstein


  • Tomlins, "Reconsidering Indentured Servitude: European Migration and the Early American Labor Force, 1600-1775," Labor History, V.42, n.1, 2001
  • Lamar, "Bonded and Contract Labor in the Southwest," in Boris and Lichtenstein

B. Development of the Factory System

  • Dawley, "Lynn Shoemakers and the Solidarity of Class," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Roediger, "White Artisans and the Solidarity of Race," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Amelia, a Woman Worker, Protests Lowell Wage Slavery, 1845," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Journeymen Tailors Protest Wage Slavery, 1836," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Frederick Douglass Confronts Working-Class Racism, 1836" in Boris and Lichtenstein


  • Roediger and Foner, Our Own Time: A History of American Labor and the Working Day
  • Jessie Hutchison, "Cordwainers Rallying Song," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "A Reporter's Account of Lynn Women's Mass Meeting During the Great Strike, 1860," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Tomlins, "Criminal Conspiracy and Early Labor Combinations: Massachusetts, 1824-1840," Labor History, V.28, N.3, Summer 1987

 C. Free and Unfree Labor

  • Genovese, "The Plantation Work Ethic," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Slave Production at Pleasant Hill Plantation, 1850," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Slave Solomon Northrup's View of Cotton Planting and Harvesting, 1854," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "A Planter on Child Rearing, 1836," in Boris and Lichtenstein


  • Mellon, Bullwhip Days: The Slaves Remember
  • Galenson "White Servitude and the Growth of Black Slavery in Colonial America." Journal of Economic History, V.41, N.1
  • Smith, Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labor in America 1607-1776
  • Foner, Organized Labor and the Black Worker , chap.1
  • Engerman, "Slavery and Emancipation in Comparative Perspective: A Look at Some Recent Debates," Journal of Economic History , V.46, N.2

D. Civil War and Reconstruction

  • Foner, "Emancipation and the Reconstruction of Southern Labor," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "African-American Washerwomen Demand Higher Wages, 1866," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "'Colored' vs. Chinese in Galveston, 1877," in Boris and Lichtenstein


  • "A Northern Unionist Lectures Ex-Slaves on the Work Ethic, 1865," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "'We Demand Land': Petition by Southern Freedmen, 1865," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Lause, "The American Radicals and Organized Marxism: the Initial Experience, 1869-1874," Labor History, V.33, N.1, Winter 1992

E. The Gilded Age

  • Brecher, "The Great Upheaval," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Montgomery, "Work Rules and Manliness in the World of the Nineteenth Century Craftsman," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Haymarket Anarchist Michael Schwab Fights for Freedom, 1886" in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Samuel Gompers Defends the Right to Strike, 1899," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Fitz John Porter Explains How to Quell Mobs, 1885," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "George Pullman Defends Managerial Paternalism" in Boris and Lichtenstein


  • Green, "Remembering Haymarket: Chicago's Labor Martyrs and Their Legacy" in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Lens, "The Molly Maguires" "Two Weeks of Insurrection," "The Bomb at Haymarket"
  • Reynolds, "Changing the Faces of Labor's Leaders: The Knights of Labor Poster of 1886," Labor's Heritage, Spring/Summer 2004
  • Kaufman, "Birth of a Federation: Gompers Endeavors 'Not to Build a Bubble'," Monthly Labor Review,V.104, N.11
  • Gitelman, "Adolph Strasser and the Origins of Pure and Simple Trade Unionism," in Leab
  • Molloy, "No Philanthropy at the Point of Production: A Knight of St. Gregory against the Knights of Labor in the New England Rubber Industry, 1885" Labor History, V. 44, n.2, May 2003
  • Schneider "The Citizen Striker: Workers' Ideology in the Homestead Strike of 1892." Labor History, V.23, N.1, Winter 1982
  • Schneirow, "Voting as a Class: Haymarket and the Rise of a Democrat-Labor Alliance in Late 19th Century Chicago," Labor's Heritage, Spring/Summer 2004
  • Lens, "Naval War at Homestead"
  • Wolf, Lockout: The Story of the Homestead Strike of 1892

F. The Progressive Era and World War I

  • Gutman, "The Cultures of First Generation Industrial Workers," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Enstad, "French Heels and Ladyhood in the World of Early-Twentieth-Century Garment Strikers," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "In re Debs, 1895," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Investigator John Fitch describes Steel's Long Shift, 1912," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Miner John Brophy Learns His Trade, 1907," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Frederick Winslow Taylor Explains the Principles of Scientific Management, 1916," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • See the Photoessay on "Americans at Work in the Industrial Era," Boris and Lichtenstein starting at p. 237


  • Takaki, "Asian Immigrants Raising Cane: The World of Plantation Hawaii," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • McCartin, "Fighting for Democracy in World War I," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "The Shirtwaist Strikers Win, 1910," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Unionist Alice Henry Outlines Why Women Need Their Own Local Unions, 1915," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Industrial Democracy Needed for the War Effort, 1917," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "President Wilson on the Labor Question, 1919," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Lens, "War in the Rockies," "First Round in Mass Production," "The Debs Revolution"
  • J. Robert Constantine, "Eugene V. Debs: an American Paradox," Monthly Labor Review, August 1991
  • Gitelman "Being of Two Minds: American Employers Confront the Labor Problem, 1915-1919." Labor History, V.25, N.2, Spring 1984
  • Barrett, "Revolution and Personal Crisis: William Z. Foster, Personal Narrative, and the Subjective in the History of American Communism," Labor History, November 2002
  • Potter, "`Suppose it Were Your Daughter': Gender, Class and Work as Perceived by Women Factory Inspectors in Progressive Era Massachusetts," Labor History, November 2002
  • Harris, "The Closed Shop, the Proprietary Capitalist and the Law, 1897-1915," in Jacoby, Masters to Managers: Historical and Comparative Perspectives on American Employers
  • Ebner, "The Passaic Strike of 1912 and the Two I.W.W.s," in Leab
  • Foner, Organized Labor and the Black Worker , chaps.8-10
  • Foner, Women and the American Labor Movement: From Colonial Times to the Eve of World War I, chaps.12,13,15
  • Painter, "Black Workers from Reconstruction to the Great Depression," in Buhle and Dawley, Working for Democracy
  • Slater, "Public Workers: Labor and the Boston Police Strike of 1919," Labor History, Winter 1996-97
  • Brecher, Strike, chap.3
  • Gompers, Seventy Years of Life and Labor, pp.65-118
  • Renshaw, The Wobblies, chap.2
  • Tripp, "Law and Social Control: Historians' Views of Progressive-Era Labor Legislation," Labor History, V.28, N.4, Fall 1987
  • Kelly, "Sentinels for New South Industry: Booker T. Washington, Industrial Accommodation and Black Workers in the Jim Crow South," Labor History August 2003
  • Koenig, "Law and Disorder at Home: Free Love, Free Speech and the Search for an Anarchist Utopia," Labor History May 2004
  • McGuire, "From the Courts to the State Legislatures: Social Justice Feminism, Labor Legislation and the 1920s," Labor History May 2004

G. The 1920s and the Great Depression

  • Kessler-Harris, "Law and Free Labor," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Dubofsky, "Not so Radical Years: Another Look at the 1930s," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Nelson, "Radical Years: Working-class Consciousness on the Waterfront in the 1930s," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Adkins v. Children's Hospital, 1923," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "A Student's View of Soldiering, 1931," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Preamble of the National Labor Relations Act, 1935," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Communist John Steuben Organizes Steel, 1936," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Mrs. Violet Baggett Joins the Union, 1937," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "A Union Man Gets His Job Back, 1938," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Stanley Nowak Organizes a Slowdown Strike, 1937," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Rees, “What If a Company Union Wasn’t a ‘Sham’?  The Rockerfeller Plan in Action,” Labor History, No. 4, 2007


  • "Helen B. Sayre Praises the Progress of Negro Women in Industry, 1924," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Swidorski, "The Courts, the Labor Movement and the Struggle for Freedom of Expression and Association, 1919-1940," Labor History, February 2004
  • Johanningsmeier, "The Trade Union Unity League: American Communists and the Transition to Industrial Unionism," Labor History, V.42, n.2, 2001
  • Brecher, Strike, chap.5
  • Nelson, "Scientific Management and the Workplace, 1920-1935," in Jacoby
  • Keeran "Communist Influence in the Automobile Industry, 1920-1933: Paving the Way for an Industrial Union." Labor History, V.20, N.2, Spring 1979
  • Jacoby "Union-Management Cooperation in the United States: Lessons from the 1920s." Industrial and Labor Relations Review, V.37, N.1
  • Jacoby, "Modern Manors: An Overview," Industrial Relations, April 1999
  • Lens, "The Lean Years," "Clearing the Cobwebs," "Impending Victory," "Sitdown! Sitdown!"
  • Stricker "Affluence for Whom?--Another Look at Prosperity and the Working Classes in the 1920s." in Leab
  • Foner, Organized Labor and the Black Worker , chaps.11-16
  • Foner, Women and the American Labor Movement: From World War I to the Present, chaps.16-17
  • Thomas, "Blacks and the CIO," in Buhle and Dawley, Working for Democracy
  • Green, "Labor and the New Deal in Buhle and Dawley Working for Democracy
  • Samuel, "Troubled Passage: the Labor Movement and the Fair Labor Standards Act," Monthly Labor Review, December 2000
  • Pope, "The Western Pennsylvania Coal Strike of 1933, Part I: Lawmaking from Below and the Revival of the United Mine Workers," Labor History, V. 44, n.1, February 2003
  • Pope, "The Western Pennsylvania Coal Strike of 1933, Part II: Lawmaking from Above and the Demise of Democracy in the United Mine Workers, Labor History, V. 44, n.2, May 2003
  • "'Chinaman, Laundryman' Poet H.T. Tsaing Defends Chinese Immigrants, 1929" in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "White Collar Workers Organize, 1938," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "For UAW Shop Stewards: `How to Win for the Union,' 1941," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Union Leaders Oppose Shop-floor Agitators, 1941," in Boris and Lichtenstein

 H. World War II and the Post-war Period

  • Lichtenstein, "The Unions' Retreat in the Postwar Period," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Schrecker, "Labor Encounters the Anticommunist Crusade," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "The War Labor Board Assails Workplace Racism, 1943," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "The War Labor Board Orders Equal Pay for Equal Work, 1944," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Women's Work in a California Warplane Factory, 1941-45," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "The CIO Attacks a Communist-led Union, 1949," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Arbitrator Harry Shulman Upholds the Authority of Ford Supervision, 1944," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Fortune Magazine Applauds the U.S. Labor Movement, 1951," in Boris and Lichtenstein


  • "President Franklin Roosevelt Establishes a Committee on Fair Employment Practice, 1941," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Mildred Keith Protests Discrimination, 1942," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Korstad and Lichtenstein, "How Organized Black Workers Brought Civil Rights to the South," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Boris, "Racialized Bodies on the Homefront," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Betty Friedan Argues for Trade Union Feminism, 1952," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Shop Steward B.J. Widick Outlines the Frustrations of the Contract System, 1954," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Foner, Organized Labor and the Black Worker , chap.17
  • Hardman, "John L. Lewis, Labor Leader and Man: An Interpretation," Labor History, V.2, N.1, Winter 1961
  • Raucher, "Employee Relations at General Motors: The `My Job' Contest, 1947," Labor History, V.28, N.2, Spring 1987
  • Nissen, U.S. Labor Relations 1945-89: Accomodation and Conflict
  • Harrington, "Catholics in the Labor Movement: A Case History," Labor History, Fall 1960
  • Seaton, Catholics and Radicals, chap.7

I. The 1960s

  • Honey, "Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Memphis Sanitation Strike," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Murphy, "Collective Bargaining: The Coming of Age of Teacher Unionism," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Cesar E. Chavez, Good Friday Message, 1969," in Boris and Lichtenstein


  • "The American Federation of Teachers on the Rights of Teachers, 1951," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "The March on Washington Demands Jobs and Freedom, 1963," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Union Leader Taylor Rogers Relives the Memphis Sanitation Strike (1968), 2000," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Andrew, "Factionalism and Anti-Communism: Ford Local 600," Labor History, V.20, N.2, Spring 1979
  • Foner, Organized Labor and the Black Worker , chaps.20-24
  • Geschwender, Class, Race and Worker Insurgency: The League of Revolutionary Black Workers, chaps.4-8
  • Levy, "The New Left and Labor: the Early Years (1960-1963)," Labor History, V.31, N.3, Summer 1990
  • Nissen, U.S. Labor Relations 1945-89: Accomodation and Conflict
  • Minchin, "'Color Means Something': Black Pioneers, White Resistance, and Interracial Unionism in the Southern Textile Industry, 1957-1980," Labor History, May 1998

 J. The 1970s and 80s

  • Cobble, "Feminism Transforms Women Service Workers," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Freedman, "Construction Workers Defend Their Manhood," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • “Sociologist Daniel Bell's 'Post-Industrial' Vision, 1973," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Fred Roman on the Life of an Accountant, 1972," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Lee Radler Archacki Explains Why She Chose the Night Shift, 1979," in Boris and Lichtenstein


  • "Computerized Order Taking at McDonalds, 1988," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Sex Discrimination in the Skies, 1967," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "The Scandal Behind Soaring Construction Costs, 1972," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Zieger, "Recent Historical Scholarship on Public Policy in Relation to Race and Labor in the Post-Title VII Period," Labor History, February 2004
  • Rachleff, Hard Pressed in the Heartland: the Hormel Strike and the Future of the Labor Movement
  • Milkman, "Women Workers, Feminism and the Labor Movement since the 1960s," in Milkman, Women, Work and Protest
  • Nissen, U.S. Labor Relations 1945-89: Accomodation and Conflict
  • Minchin, "'Labor's Empty Gun': Permanent Replacements and the International Paper Company Strike of 1987-88," Labor History, February 2006

K. Contemporary Issues

  • Ross, "Sweated Labor in Cyberspace," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Sleigh, "From Workplace to Corporate Governance: Emerging IR Issues in the Twenty-First Century," Perspectives on Work, V.5, n. 2
  • "Management's Weapon: Scab Labor, 1990," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Temp Blues, 1994" in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Sweatshop Workers Speak Out, 1998," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Harvard Union Clerical and Technical Workers State Their Principles, 1988," in Boris and Lichtenstein


  • Chang, "The Nanny Visa," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Queremos Justicia! We Want Justice, 1996," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "Big Win at UPS, 1997," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • van Jaarsveld, "Collective Representation Among High-Tech Workers at Microsoft and Beyond: Lessons from WashTech/CWA," Industrial Relations, April 2004
  • Cobble, "The Next Unionism: Structural Innovations for a Revitalized Labor Movement," Proceedings, IRRA, Spring 1997
  • Newman, "Union and Community Mobilization and the Internet Age," Perspectives on Work, V.6, n. 2

 III. A. Union Organization, Employers and the Law

  • Grady, "Broken Promises: The Failure of American Labor Law," Labor Law Journal, March 1990
  • Roth, "Workers Rights in the United States," Perspectives on Work, V.5, n.1 (photocopy provided Fall 2002)


  • Strauss, "Is the New Deal System Collapsing? With What Might It Be Replaced?" Industrial Relations, July 1995
  • Kaufman and Lewin, "Is the NLRA Still Relevant to Today's Economy and Workplace?" Proceedings, IRRA, January 1998
  • Bernstein, "The Evolution of the Use of Management Consultants in Labor Relations: A Labor View," Labor Law Journal, May 1985
  • Friedman, "Ensuring Human Rights at Work," Perspectives on Work, V.5, n.1(photocopy provided Fall 2002)

B. Structure and Size of the Labor Movement

  • Meyerson, "A New AFL-CIO," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Lafer, "Graduate Student Unions Fight the Corporate University," in Boris and Lichtenstein


  • Godard, "Do Labor Laws Matter: The Density Decline and Convergence Thesis Revisited," Industrial Relations, July 2003
  • Farber, "The Extent of Unionization in the United States," in Kochan, Challenges and Choices Facing American Labor
  • Kovach, "Organized Labor's Deteriorating Condition," Labor Law Journal, V.36, N.11
  • Wallihan, Union Government and Organization , chap.3
  • Cobble, "Lost Ways of Organizing: Reviving the AFL's Direct Affiliate Strategy," Industrial Relations July 1997
  • Hirsch, et al., "Estimates of Union Density by State," Monthly Labor Review, July 2001

 C. Unions and the Underprivileged

  • "An AFL View of Women Workers in Industry, 1897" in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "The AFL-CIO Defends Immigrant Workers, 2000," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "The American Federation of Labor Embraces Equal Pay for Equal Work, 1917," in Boris and Lichtenstein


  • Foner, Women and the American Labor Movement: From World War I to the Present, chaps. 2,3,24-27
  • Foner, Organized Labor and the Black Worker , chaps.25-26
  • Asher, "Union Nativism and the Immigrant Response." Labor History, V.23, N.3, Summer 1982
  • Marable, "Black Leadership and the Labor Movement," Working USA, Sept-Oct 1997
  • Gutman, Work, Culture, and Society in Industrializing America, chap.3
  • Boyle, "`There Are No Union Sorrows that the Union Can't Heal': the Struggle for Racial Equality in the United Automobile Workers, 1940-1960," Labor History, V.36, N.1, Winter 1995
  • Rosenberg, "The IWW and Organization of Asian Workers in Early 20th Century America," Labor History, V.36, N.1, Winter 1995
  • Asher and Stephenson, Labor Divided: Race and Ethnicity in United States Labor Struggles, 1835-1960
  • Witwer, "Race Relations in the Early Teamsters Union," Labor History, V. 43, n.4, November 2002
  • Arnesen, "Spector of the Black Strike Breaker: Race, Employment and Labor Activism in the Industrial Era," Labor History August 2003
  • Mastracci, "Backstage and Spotlight Activism: One Survival Strategy of the Women's Bureau and Its Price," Labor History, February 2004
  • Phan, "`A Race So Different' Chinese Exclusion, the Slaughter House Cases and Plessy v. Ferguson," Labor History, May 2004

D. Union Political Activities

  • Voos, "Democracy and Industrial Relations," Proceedings, IRRA, January 2004
  • "Republican Kellyanne Fitzpatrick Promotes California's Proposition 226 as `Paycheck Protection,' 1998," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • "The Battle in Seattle, 1999" in Boris and Lichtenstein


  • "Senseless in Seattle, 1999," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Asher and Heberling, American Labor Unions in the Electoral Arena
  • Gompers, Seventy Years of Life and Labor, pp.143-146
  • Lichtenstein, Labor's War at Home: The CIO in World War II, chap.3
  • Ross, "John L. Lewis and the Election of 1940." Labor History, V.17, N.2, Spring 1976
  • Spencer, "Labor's Non-Partisan League: 1936-1944," Labor's Heritage, Spring/Summer 2004
  • Dubofsky and Van Tine, John L. Lewis: A Biography , chap.15
  • Greene, "`The Strike at the Ballot Box': The American Federation of Labor's Entrance into Election Politics, 1906-1909," Labor History, V.32, N.2, Spring 1991
  • Gramm, "Labor's Legislative Initiatives to Restrict Permanently Replacing Strikers," Proceedings, IRRA, Annual Meeting, New Orleans, January 1992
  • Masters, "A New Political Strategy for American Unions," Working USA, Sept-Oct 1997
  • Boyle, Organized Labor and American Politics, 1894-1994: The Labor Liberal Alliance
  • Dark, The Unions and the Democrats: An Enduring Alliance
  • Zullo, "Labor Council Outreach and Union Member Voter Turnout: A Microanalysis from the 2000 Election," Industrial Relations, April 2004
  • Logan, "The Campaign to Save Labor's 'Only True Weapon'" Perspectives on Work, Summer 2006


V. Summary and Conclusions

  • Moody, "A Certain Kind of Globalization," in Boris and Lichtenstein
  • Kelley, "How the New Working Class Can Transform Urban America," in Boris and Lichtenstein


  • Craver, "The Current and Future Status of Labor Organizations," Labor Law Journal, V.36, N.4
  • Fink, "Have We Been Here Before? Prospects for a Future for American Unionism," Proceedings, IRRA, Annual Meeting, Boston, January 1994