ASA Format – Style Guide


Citations within the Text

Footnotes & Endnotes

Reference List/Bibliography Basics

Examples of References


Citations within the Text

Include the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. Include page number when you quote directly from the work or refer to specific passages.

When Gilligan (1982) studied…

When the study was completed in 1992 (Jones 1994), cable television news ratings were ….

It was only Johansson (1976:37) who foresaw the development of advanced health directives.

- (Smith, Garcia and Lee 1954)

- (Smith et al. 1954)

"In 1999, however, the data were reported by more specific job types which showed that technologically oriented jobs paid better" (Hildenbrand 1999:47).


Footnotes & Endnotes


Reference List/Bibliography Basics


Examples of References


… One author

Parsons, Talcott. 1978. Action Theory and the Human Condition. New York, NY: Free Press.

… Two authors

Wickman, Peter and Phillip Whitten . 1980. Criminology, Perspectives on Crime and Criminality. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath .

… Chapter in book

Barnello, Inga. 1996. "The Changing Face of Reference: A History of the Future." pp. 3-17 in The Changing Face of Reference, edited by L.M. Stuart and D.H. Holiman. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, Inc.

… No author

Manual of Style. 2003. 15 th ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. (Note: List books with no author alphabetically by the first significant word in the title.)

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Journal Articles in Print

… One author

Naturale, April. 2007. “Secondary Traumatic Stress in Social Workers Responding to Disasters: Reports from the Field.” Clinical Social Work Journal 35: 173-181.

… Two or more authors

Leicht, Kevin T. and Mary L. Fennel. 1997. " The Changing of Organizational Context of Professional Work." Annual Review of Sociology 23:215-231.

Ulrich, Connie, Patricia O’Donnell, Carol Taylor, and Adrianne Farrar. 2007. " Ethical Climate, Ethics Stress , and the Job Satisfaction of Nurses and Social Workers in the United States." Social Science and Medicine 65:1708-1719.


Newspaper & Magazine Articles in Print

Basic form for a newspaper or magazine entry is 1- Author’s last name, followed by a comma and the first name and middle initial, ending with a period. 2- Year of publication followed by a period. 3-Title of article in quotations and ending with a period inside the closing quotation mark. 4-Name of newspaper/magazine in italics 5-date of publication followed by a comma 6- page number of article within the publication ending with a period.

… Magazine

Fowl, Cook. 2007. " De- Stress Your Turkey Day Drive." PC Magazine, December 4, pp. 21.

… Newspaper

Reimer, Sarah. 2007. "Less Homework, More Yoga: From a Principal Who Hates Stress." New York Times, October 29 A1-A16.

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Articles and Reports Retrieved in Electronic Format

… From commercial databases

Evans-Campbell, Teresa. 2008. “Historical Trauma in American Indian/Native Alaska Communities”  Journal of Interpersonal Violence ,  23:3. Retrieved July 3, 2008 Available: Proquest Research Library.

… Web version of newspapers (from the newspaper’s web site)

Baker, Robert A. 2008. “Ex-Felon Accused of Abusing Disabled Boy.” Syracuse Post-Standard, June 13. Retrieved July 3, 2008 (

… Web-based Journals (those published only online with NO print equivalent)

Diaz, Joseph. 2007. "Racial Differences in Self-Destructive Behavior Related to Depression." Electronic Journal of Sociology, Retrieved December 5, 2007 (

… Information posted on a web site of an organization with a known location

American Sociological Association. 2006. "Behavioral and Social and Science are Under Attack in the Senate." Washington, DC: American Sociological Association, Retrieved November 28, 2007 (

… Information posted on a web site of an organization with an unknown location (IBM has offices all over the world)

IBM. 2007. "Education: Solutions and Open Technologies for K–12 Schools, Higher Education and Lifelong Learning." Retrieved January 30, 2007 (

… When the citation references a report published by an institution and then accessed online:

Johns Hopkins University . 2003. Economic Impact of the Johns Hopkins Institutions in Maryland. Silver Spring, MD: Johns Hopkins University and Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved January 26, 2007 ( ).

[ includes publisher location because the document was originally published as a printed document and then simply uploaded to a website. It is important to include the retrieval date and web URL so as not to mislead readers into thinking you accessed the printed document when you did not. ]

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Miscellaneous types of publications

… Government Documents: Since the nature of public documents is so varied, the form of entry for documents cannot be standardized. The essential rule is to provide sufficient information so that the reader can locate the reference easily. For example see the following:

United States . Department of Justice. 2006. The Title of the Document. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Justice.

… Dissertations & Theses

Smith, John. 1993. " Women deans and the NAWD as predictors of the new feminism." Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Education, University of Philadelphia.



Updated: July 8, 2008 IHB